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      Functionalized nanoparticles: Tailoring properties through surface energetics and coordination chemistry for advanced biomedical applications

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          Abstract

          Significant advances in nanoparticle-related research have been made in the past decade, and amelioration of properties is considered of utmost importance for improving nanoparticle bioavailability, specificity, and catalytic performance.

          Abstract

          Significant advances in nanoparticle-related research have been made in the past decade, and amelioration of properties is considered of utmost importance for improving nanoparticle bioavailability, specificity, and catalytic performance. Nanoparticle properties can be tuned through in-synthesis and post-synthesis functionalization operations, with thermodynamic and kinetic parameters playing a crucial role. In spite of robust functionalization techniques based on surface chemistry, scalable technologies have not been explored well. The coordination enhancement via surface functionalization through organic/inorganic/biomolecules material has attracted much attention with morphology modification and shape tuning, which are indispensable aspects in the colloidal phase during biomedical applications. It is envisioned that surface amelioration influences the anchoring properties of nano interfaces for the immobilization of functional groups and biomolecules. In this work, various nanostructure and anchoring methodologies have been discussed, aiming to exploit their full potential in precision engineering applications. Simultaneous discussions on emerging characterization strategies for functionalized assemblies have been made to gain insights into functionalization chemistry. An overview of current advances and prospects of functionalized nanoparticles has been presented, with an emphasis on controllable attributes such as size, shape, morphology, functionality, surface features, Debye and Casimir interactions.

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          Most cited references218

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          Engineering precision nanoparticles for drug delivery

          In recent years, the development of nanoparticles has expanded into a broad range of clinical applications. Nanoparticles have been developed to overcome the limitations of free therapeutics and navigate biological barriers — systemic, microenvironmental and cellular — that are heterogeneous across patient populations and diseases. Overcoming this patient heterogeneity has also been accomplished through precision therapeutics, in which personalized interventions have enhanced therapeutic efficacy. However, nanoparticle development continues to focus on optimizing delivery platforms with a one-size-fits-all solution. As lipid-based, polymeric and inorganic nanoparticles are engineered in increasingly specified ways, they can begin to be optimized for drug delivery in a more personalized manner, entering the era of precision medicine. In this Review, we discuss advanced nanoparticle designs utilized in both non-personalized and precision applications that could be applied to improve precision therapies. We focus on advances in nanoparticle design that overcome heterogeneous barriers to delivery, arguing that intelligent nanoparticle design can improve efficacy in general delivery applications while enabling tailored designs for precision applications, thereby ultimately improving patient outcome overall.
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            Is Open Access

            Nanoparticles: Properties, applications and toxicities

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              Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals

              Peng, Manna, Yang (2000)
              Nanometre-size inorganic dots, tubes and wires exhibit a wide range of electrical and optical properties that depend sensitively on both size and shape, and are of both fundamental and technological interest. In contrast to the syntheses of zero-dimensional systems, existing preparations of one-dimensional systems often yield networks of tubes or rods which are difficult to separate. And, in the case of optically active II-VI and III-V semiconductors, the resulting rod diameters are too large to exhibit quantum confinement effects. Thus, except for some metal nanocrystals, there are no methods of preparation that yield soluble and monodisperse particles that are quantum-confined in two of their dimensions. For semiconductors, a benchmark preparation is the growth of nearly spherical II-VI and III-V nanocrystals by injection of precursor molecules into a hot surfactant. Here we demonstrate that control of the growth kinetics of the II-VI semiconductor cadmium selenide can be used to vary the shapes of the resulting particles from a nearly spherical morphology to a rod-like one, with aspect ratios as large as ten to one. This method should be useful, not only for testing theories of quantum confinement, but also for obtaining particles with spectroscopic properties that could prove advantageous in biological labelling experiments and as chromophores in light-emitting diodes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                NANOHL
                Nanoscale
                Nanoscale
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2040-3364
                2040-3372
                March 30 2023
                2023
                : 15
                : 13
                : 6075-6104
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai – 600036, India
                [2 ]Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Jais – 229304, India
                [3 ]School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, North Terrace Campus, Adelaide (SA) 5005, Australia
                Article
                10.1039/D2NR07163K
                36928281
                7fac5635-7f52-4cce-928a-64d3db0c0d33
                © 2023

                http://rsc.li/journals-terms-of-use

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