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      Recent advances in functionalized micro and mesoporous carbon materials: synthesis and applications

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          Abstract

          This review provides the recent progress and advances in the design, synthesis and high throughput applications of functionalized micro and mesoporous carbon materials.

          Abstract

          Functionalized nanoporous carbon materials have attracted the colossal interest of the materials science fraternity owing to their intriguing physical and chemical properties including a well-ordered porous structure, exemplary high specific surface areas, electronic and ionic conductivity, excellent accessibility to active sites, and enhanced mass transport and diffusion. These properties make them a special and unique choice for various applications in divergent fields such as energy storage batteries, supercapacitors, energy conversion fuel cells, adsorption/separation of bulky molecules, heterogeneous catalysts, catalyst supports, photocatalysis, carbon capture, gas storage, biomolecule detection, vapour sensing and drug delivery. Because of the anisotropic and synergistic effects arising from the heteroatom doping at the nanoscale, these novel materials show high potential especially in electrochemical applications such as batteries, supercapacitors and electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications and water electrolysis. In order to gain the optimal benefit, it is necessary to implement tailor made functionalities in the porous carbon surfaces as well as in the carbon skeleton through the comprehensive experimentation. These most appealing nanoporous carbon materials can be synthesized through the carbonization of high carbon containing molecular precursors by using soft or hard templating or non-templating pathways. This review encompasses the approaches and the wide range of methodologies that have been employed over the last five years in the preparation and functionalisation of nanoporous carbon materials via incorporation of metals, non-metal heteroatoms, multiple heteroatoms, and various surface functional groups that mostly dictate their place in a wide range of practical applications.

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          Ordered nanoporous arrays of carbon supporting high dispersions of platinum nanoparticles.

          Nanostructured carbon materials are potentially of great technological interest for the development of electronic, catalytic and hydrogen-storage systems. Here we describe a general strategy for the synthesis of highly ordered, rigid arrays of nanoporous carbon having uniform but tunable diameters (typically 6 nanometres inside and 9 nanometres outside). These structures are formed by using ordered mesoporous silicas as templates, the removal of which leaves a partially ordered graphitic framework. The resulting material supports a high dispersion of platinum nanoparticles, exceeding that of other common microporous carbon materials (such as carbon black, charcoal and activated carbon fibres). The platinum cluster diameter can be controlled to below 3 nanometres, and the high dispersion of these metal clusters gives rise to promising electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction, which could prove to be practically relevant for fuel-cell technologies. These nanomaterials can also be prepared in the form of free-standing films by using ordered silica films as the templates.
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            Synthesis of Highly Ordered Carbon Molecular Sieves via Template-Mediated Structural Transformation

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              Synthesis of New, Nanoporous Carbon with Hexagonally Ordered Mesostructure

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CSRVBR
                Chemical Society Reviews
                Chem. Soc. Rev.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                0306-0012
                1460-4744
                2018
                2018
                : 47
                : 8
                : 2680-2721
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Future Industries Institute
                [2 ]Division of Information Technology Energy and Environment
                [3 ]University of South Australia
                [4 ]Adelaide
                [5 ]Australia
                [6 ]SABIC Corporate Research and Development Center at KAUST
                [7 ]Saudi Basic Industries Corporation
                [8 ]Thuwal 23955
                [9 ]Saudi Arabia
                Article
                10.1039/C7CS00787F
                29577123
                © 2018

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