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      Rev-erbα in the brain is essential for circadian food entrainment

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          Abstract

          Foraging is costly in terms of time and energy. An endogenous food-entrainable system allows anticipation of predictable changes of food resources in nature. Yet the molecular mechanism that controls food anticipation in mammals remains elusive. Here we report that deletion of the clock component Rev-erbα impairs food entrainment in mice. Rev-erbα global knockout (GKO) mice subjected to restricted feeding showed reduced elevations of locomotor activity and body temperature prior to mealtime, regardless of the lighting conditions. The failure to properly anticipate food arrival was accompanied by a lack of phase-adjustment to mealtime of the clock protein PERIOD2 in the cerebellum, and by diminished expression of phosphorylated ERK 1/2 (p-ERK) during mealtime in the mediobasal hypothalamus and cerebellum. Furthermore, brain-specific knockout (BKO) mice for Rev-erbα display a defective suprachiasmatic clock, as evidenced by blunted daily activity under a light-dark cycle, altered free-running rhythm in constant darkness and impaired clock gene expression. Notably, brain deletion of Rev-erbα totally prevented food-anticipatory behaviour and thermogenesis. In response to restricted feeding, brain deletion of Rev-erbα impaired changes in clock gene expression in the hippocampus and cerebellum, but not in the liver. Our findings indicate that Rev-erbα is required for neural network-based prediction of food availability.

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          Most cited references 40

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          The orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha controls circadian transcription within the positive limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator.

          Mammalian circadian rhythms are generated by a feedback loop in which BMAL1 and CLOCK, players of the positive limb, activate transcription of the cryptochrome and period genes, components of the negative limb. Bmal1 and Per transcription cycles display nearly opposite phases and are thus governed by different mechanisms. Here, we identify the orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha as the major regulator of cyclic Bmal1 transcription. Circadian Rev-erbalpha expression is controlled by components of the general feedback loop. Thus, REV-ERBalpha constitutes a molecular link through which components of the negative limb drive antiphasic expression of components of the positive limb. While REV-ERBalpha influences the period length and affects the phase-shifting properties of the clock, it is not required for circadian rhythm generation.
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            Regulation of Circadian Behavior and Metabolism by Rev-erbα and Rev-erbβ

            The circadian clock acts at the genomic level to coordinate internal behavioral and physiologic rhythms via the CLOCK-BMAL transcriptional heterodimer. Although the nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and β have been proposed to form an accessory feedback loop that contributes to clock function 1,2 , their precise roles and importance remain unresolved. To establish their regulatory potential we generated comparative cistromes of both REV-ERB isoforms, which revealed shared recognition at over 50% of their total sites and extensive overlap with the master circadian regulator BMAL1. While Rev-erbα has been shown to directly regulate Bmal1 expression 1,2 , the cistromic analysis reveals a direct connection between Bmal1 and Rev-erbα and β regulatory circuits than previously suspected. Genes within the intersection of the BMAL1, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ cistromes are highly enriched for both clock and metabolic functions. As predicted by the cistromic analysis, dual depletion of Rev-erbα/β function by creating double-knockout mice (DKOs) profoundly disrupted circadian expression of core circadian clock and lipid homeostatic gene networks. As a result, DKOs show strikingly altered circadian wheel-running behavior and deregulated lipid metabolism. These data now ally Rev-erbα/β with Per, Cry and other components of the principal feedback loop that drives circadian expression and suggest a more integral mechanism for the coordination of circadian rhythm and metabolism.
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              Differential control of Bmal1 circadian transcription by REV-ERB and ROR nuclear receptors.

              Circadian rhythms result from feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. In mammals, 2 orphan nuclear receptors, REV-ERBalpha and RORalpha, play important roles in the transcription of the clock gene Bmal1. The authors now considerably extend these findings with the demonstration that all members of the REV-ERB (alpha and beta) and ROR (alpha, beta, and gamma) families repress and activate Bmal1 transcription, respectively. The authors further show that transcription of Bmal1 is the result of competition between REV-ERBs and RORs at their specific response elements (RORE). Moreover, they demonstrate that Reverb genes are similarly expressed in the thymus, skeletal muscle, and kidney, whereas Ror genes present distinct expression patterns. Thus, the results indicate that all members of the REV-ERB and ROR families are crucial components of the molecular circadian clock. Furthermore, their strikingly different patterns of expression in nervous and peripheral tissues provide important insights into functional differences between circadian clocks within the organism.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                06 July 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Regulation of circadian clocks team, Institute of Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences, UPR3212, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, University of Strasbourg , France
                [2 ]Chronobiotron, UMS3415, CNRS, University of Strasbourg , France
                Author notes
                [*]

                Present address: Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

                Article
                srep29386
                10.1038/srep29386
                4933951
                27380954
                Copyright © 2016, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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