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      Efficacy and Safety of Midostaurin in Advanced Systemic Mastocytosis

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          Abstract

          Advanced systemic mastocytosis comprises rare hematologic neoplasms that are associated with a poor prognosis and lack effective treatment options. The multikinase inhibitor midostaurin inhibits KIT D816V, a primary driver of disease pathogenesis.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Clinical application and proposal for modification of the International Working Group (IWG) response criteria in myelodysplasia.

          The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are heterogeneous with respect to clinical characteristics, pathologic features, and cytogenetic abnormalities. This heterogeneity is a challenge for evaluating response to treatment. Therapeutic trials in MDS have used various criteria to assess results, making cross-study comparisons problematic. In 2000, an International Working Group (IWG) proposed standardized response criteria for evaluating clinically significant responses in MDS. These criteria included measures of alteration in the natural history of disease, hematologic improvement, cytogenetic response, and improvement in health-related quality of life. The relevance of the response criteria has now been validated prospectively in MDS clinical trials, and they have gained acceptance in research studies and in clinical practice. Because limitations of the IWG criteria have surfaced, based on practical and reported experience, some modifications were warranted. In this report, we present recommendations for revisions of some of the initial criteria.
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            The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the myeloid neoplasms.

            A World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms has recently been published. This classification was developed through the collaborative efforts of the Society for Hematopathology, the European Association of Hematopathologists, and more than 100 clinical hematologists and scientists who are internationally recognized for their expertise in hematopoietic neoplasms. For the lymphoid neoplasms, this classification provides a refinement of the entities described in the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) Classification-a system that is now used worldwide. To date, however, there has been no published explanation or rationale given for the WHO classification of the myeloid neoplasms. The purpose of this communication is to outline briefly the WHO classification of malignant myeloid diseases, to draw attention to major differences between it and antecedent classification schemes, and to provide the rationale for those differences.
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              Safety and efficacy of INCB018424, a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, in myelofibrosis.

              Myelofibrosis is a Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with cytopenias, splenomegaly, poor quality of life, and shortened survival. About half of patients with myelofibrosis carry a gain-of-function mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2 V617F) that contributes to the pathophysiology of the disease. INCB018424 is a potent and selective Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and JAK2 inhibitor. We conducted a phase 1−2 trial of INCB018424 in patients with JAK2 V617F−positive or JAK2 V617F−negative primary myelofibrosis, post–essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis, or post–polycythemia vera myelofibrosis. A total of 153 patients received INCB018424 for a median duration of more than 14.7 months. The initial dose-escalation phase established 25 mg twice daily or 100 mg once daily as maximum tolerated doses, on the basis of reversible thrombocytopenia. A dose-dependent suppression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a marker of JAK signaling, was demonstrated in patients with wild-type JAK2 and in patients with the JAK2 V617F mutation. We studied additional doses and established that a 15-mg twice-daily starting dose, followed by individualized dose titration, was the most effective and safest dosing regimen. At this dose, 17 of 33 patients (52%) had a rapid objective response (≥50% reduction of splenomegaly) lasting for 12 months or more, and this therapy was associated with grade 3 or grade 4 adverse events (mainly myelosuppression) in less than 10% of patients. Patients with debilitating symptoms, including weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, and pruritus, had rapid improvement. Clinical benefits were associated with a marked diminution of levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines that are commonly elevated in myelofibrosis. INCB018424 was associated with marked and durable clinical benefits in patients with myelofibrosis for whom no approved therapies existed. (Funded by Incyte; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00509899.)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                June 30 2016
                June 30 2016
                : 374
                : 26
                : 2530-2541
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1513098
                27355533
                © 2016
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