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      An illustrated catalogue of the type specimens of Lepidoptera housed in the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH): Part II. superfamily Papilionoidea

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      Evolutionary Systematics
      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          We provide an updated catalogue of the type material of the lepidopteran superfamily Papilionoidea deposited in the Zoological Museum of Hamburg (ZMH). We report 414 specimens labelled as “types” belonging to nine species (all of valid names), 74 subspecies (44 valid names and 30 synonyms), 59 invalid infrasubspecific names under the ICZN code, and 23 specimens of 16 “in litteris” (= unavailable) names. Out of the 414 specimens labelled as “types”, 171 specimens are primary types (8 holotypes/lectotypes and 163 syntypes) and 80 are secondary types; 120 specimens are infrasubspecific and hence invalid and are considered as “original specimens”; and 43 specimens are treated here as “Non-type” specimens (topotype). We present a full bibliography of the original descriptions and illustrations for all of these taxa, aiming to provide a comprehensive taxonomic guide to this collection.

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          Defaunation in the Anthropocene.

          We live amid a global wave of anthropogenically driven biodiversity loss: species and population extirpations and, critically, declines in local species abundance. Particularly, human impacts on animal biodiversity are an under-recognized form of global environmental change. Among terrestrial vertebrates, 322 species have become extinct since 1500, and populations of the remaining species show 25% average decline in abundance. Invertebrate patterns are equally dire: 67% of monitored populations show 45% mean abundance decline. Such animal declines will cascade onto ecosystem functioning and human well-being. Much remains unknown about this "Anthropocene defaunation"; these knowledge gaps hinder our capacity to predict and limit defaunation impacts. Clearly, however, defaunation is both a pervasive component of the planet's sixth mass extinction and also a major driver of global ecological change. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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            Nymphalid butterflies diversify following near demise at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary.

            The butterfly family Nymphalidae contains some of the most important non-drosophilid insect model systems for evolutionary and ecological studies, yet the evolutionary history of the group has remained shrouded in mystery. We have inferred a robust phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequences of 10 genes and 235 morphological characters for exemplars of 400 of the 540 valid nymphalid genera representing all major lineages of the family. By dating the branching events, we infer that Nymphalidae originated in the Cretaceous at 90 Ma, but that the ancestors of 10-12 lineages survived the end-Cretaceous catastrophe in the Neotropical and Oriental regions. Patterns of diversification suggest extinction of lineages at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (65 Ma) and subsequent elevated speciation rates in the Tertiary.
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              Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

              Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order.
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                Journal
                Evolutionary Systematics
                EvolSyst
                Pensoft Publishers
                2535-0730
                August 20 2021
                August 20 2021
                : 5
                : 2
                : 193-261
                Article
                10.3897/evolsyst.5.63435
                7fc193e3-5b5b-45d5-bfea-acdfc5f1b343
                © 2021

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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