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      Effect of acupuncture on post-hemorrhoidectomy pain: a randomized controlled trial

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture (EA) in relieving pain after hemorrhoidectomy treatment for mixed hemorrhoids.

          Design

          This was a randomized controlled trial.

          Methods

          We conducted a single-center, single-blind, and randomized controlled clinical trial. Seventy-two patients with mixed hemorrhoids who had undergone hemorrhoidectomy were randomly assigned to the following 2 groups: the EA treatment group (EA) received surround needling with EA (n=36), and the control group received sham acupuncture (SA) treatment (n=36). The treatment was conducted within 15 min after the completion of the surgery and lasted for 30 min. The pain intensity was recorded by using the visual analog scale as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were verbal rating scale and Wong–Baker Faces Pain Rating. These measurements were evaluated at 11 time points: once every hour in the first 8 h after the treatment, 24 and 48 h after the treatment, and at the first defecation. Besides, quality of life was measured by Symptom Checklist-90 Scale at 24 and 48 h follow-ups.

          Results

          The EA group had significantly lower visual analog scale scores at the 3 time points of 6, 24 h, and during the defecation ( p<0.05). Verbal rating scale showed a significantly lower score in the treatment group compared to the SA group at 4 h after the treatment as well as during defecation ( p<0.05). The Wong–Baker Faces Pain Rating scores of EA group were significantly lower at 5, 7, and 8 h after treatment and during defecation ( p<0.05) compared with those of SA group.

          Conclusion

          Acupuncture is effective in alleviating postoperative pain in patients who have undergone hemorrhoidectomy.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 19

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          The validation of visual analogue scales as ratio scale measures for chronic and experimental pain.

          Visual analogue scales (VAS) of sensory intensity and affective magnitude were validated as ratio scale measures for both chronic and experimental pain. Chronic pain patients and healthy volunteers made VAS sensory and affective responses to 6 noxious thermal stimuli (43, 45, 47, 48, 49 and 51 degrees C) applied for 5 sec to the forearm by a contact thermode. Sensory VAS and affective VAS responses to these temperatures yielded power functions with exponents 2.1 and 3.8, respectively; these functions were similar for pain patients and for volunteers. The power functions were predictive of estimated ratios of sensation or affect produced by pairs of standard temperatures (e.g. 47 and 49 degrees C), thereby providing direct evidence for ratio scaling properties of VAS. Vas sensory intensity responses to experimental pain, VAS sensory intensity responses to different levels of chronic pain, and direct temperature (experimental pain) matches to 3 levels of chronic pain were all internally consistent, thereby demonstrating the valid use of VAS for the measurement of and comparison between chronic pain and experimental heat pain.
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            Methodological problems in the measurement of pain: a comparison between the verbal rating scale and the visual analogue scale.

            The effect of analgesics on pathological pain in a double-blind, complete cross-over design was assessed by means of two rating scales, a verbal rating scale (VRS) and visual analogue scale (VAS). The VRS is widely used, but has several disadvantages as compared to the VAS. The results obtained by means of the VRS showed higher F-ratios (analysis of variance and Kruskall-Wallis H-test) than those obtained by means of the VAS. The VRS, which transfers a continuous feeling into a digital system, seems to augment artificially the measurement of effects produced by analgesics, and the VAS seems to assess more closely what a patient actually experiences with respect to change in pain intensities. The correlation between the two scales was highly significant (r = 0.81, P less than 0.001). The calculated regression line (y=-29.6 + 0.55-x) was not similar to the line of identity and showed much lower values for the VAS, supporting our interpretation. The distribution of the variances of the values obtained by means of both scales was not homogenous. This indicates that the homogeneity of the distribution of variances should always be checked and a Kruskall-Wallis H-test used, if they are inhomogenously distributed.
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              • Article: not found

              Stapled haemorrhoidopexy compared to Milligan-Morgan and Ferguson haemorrhoidectomy: a systematic review.

              The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the short- and long-term outcomes of stapled haemorrhoidopexy. A literature search identified randomised controlled trials comparing stapled haemorrhoidopexy with Milligan-Morgan/Ferguson haemorrhoidectomy. Data were extracted independently for each study and differences analysed with fixed and random effects models. Thirty-four randomised trials and two systematic reviews were identified, and 29 trials included. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy was statistically superior for hospital stay (p < 0.001) and numerically superior for post-operative pain (peri-operative and mid-term), operation time and bleeding (post-operative and long-term). Recurrent prolapse and re-intervention for recurrence were more frequent following stapled haemorrhoidopexy. No difference was observed in the rates of complications. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy reduces the length of hospital stay and may have an advantage in terms of decreased operating time, reduced post-operative pain and less bleeding but is associated with an increased rate of recurrent prolapse.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                06 August 2018
                : 11
                : 1489-1496
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The Acupuncture Department, Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China, xu_teacher2006@ 123456126.com
                [2 ]The Acupuncture Department, Tong Ren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China, lxlao1@ 123456hku.hk
                [4 ]University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA, lxlao1@ 123456hku.hk
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shifen Xu, The Acupuncture Department, Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 274 Middle Zhijiang Road, Shanghai, China, 200071, Tel +86 5663 9828, Email xu_teacher2006@ 123456126.com
                Lixing Lao, School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 10 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China, Tel +85 2 3917 6476, Email lxlao1@ 123456hku.hk
                Article
                jpr-11-1489
                10.2147/JPR.S166953
                6084088
                © 2018 Wu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                postoperative pain, acupuncture, hemorrhoidectomy, hemorrhoids

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