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      Notes on the leaf insects of the genus Phyllium of Sumatra and Java, Indonesia, including the description of two new species with purple coxae (Phasmatodea, Phylliidae)

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      ZooKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Within the last two years, the leaf insects of the genus Phyllium of both the islands of Java and Sumatra have been reviewed extensively based on morphological observations. However, cryptic species which cannot be differentiated morphologically may be present among the various populations. Since it has frequently been demonstrated that analyses based on molecular data can bring clarity in such cases, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on three genes (nuclear gene 28S and mitochondrial genes COI and 16S) from the Phyllium species of these islands. The results show distinct molecular divergence for several populations and suggest the presence of two new cryptic species, morphologically inseparable from Phyllium hausleithneri Brock, 1999. From Sumatra, the population originally thought to be a range expansion for Phyllium hausleithneri, is now here described as Phyllium nisus sp. nov., with the only consistent morphological difference being the color of the eggs between the two populations (dark brown in P. hausleithneri and tan in P. nisus sp. nov.). Further, an additional population with purple coxae from Java was morphologically examined and found to have no consistent features to separate it morphologically from the other purple coxae species. This cryptic species from Java was however shown to be molecularly distinct from the other purple coxae populations from Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia and is here described as Phyllium gardabagusi sp. nov. In addition, Phyllium giganteum is here officially reported from Java for the first time based on both historic and modern records of male specimens.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster.

          The 'tree lobsters' are an enigmatic group of robust, ground-dwelling stick insects (order Phasmatodea) from the subfamily Eurycanthinae, distributed in New Guinea, New Caledonia and associated islands. Its most famous member is the Lord Howe Island stick insect Dryococelus australis (Montrouzier), which was believed to have become extinct but was rediscovered in 2001 and is considered to be one of the rarest insects in the world. To resolve the evolutionary position of Dryococelus, we constructed a phylogeny from approximately 2.4 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from representatives of all major phasmatodean lineages. Our data placed Dryococelus and the New Caledonian tree lobsters outside the New Guinean Eurycanthinae as members of an unrelated Australasian stick insect clade, the Lanceocercata. These results suggest a convergent origin of the 'tree lobster' body form. Our reanalysis of tree lobster characters provides additional support for our hypothesis of convergent evolution. We conclude that the phenotypic traits leading to the traditional classification are convergent adaptations to ground-living behaviour. Our molecular dating analyses indicate an ancient divergence (more than 22 Myr ago) between Dryococelus and its Australian relatives. Hence, Dryococelus represents a long-standing separate evolutionary lineage within the stick insects and must be regarded as a key taxon to protect with respect to phasmatodean diversity.
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            Biology and Ecology of the Phasmatodea

             G Bedford (1978)
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              Die Phylogenie der Stab- und Gespenstschrecken (Insecta: Phasmatodea)

               Sven Bradler (2009)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ZooKeys
                ZK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2970
                1313-2989
                February 19 2020
                February 19 2020
                : 913
                : 89-126
                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.913.49044
                © 2020

                https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/public-domain/cc0/

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