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      Notes on the leaf insects of the genus Phyllium of Sumatra and Java, Indonesia, including the description of two new species with purple coxae (Phasmatodea, Phylliidae)


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          Within the last two years, the leaf insects of the genus Phyllium of both the islands of Java and Sumatra have been reviewed extensively based on morphological observations. However, cryptic species which cannot be differentiated morphologically may be present among the various populations. Since it has frequently been demonstrated that analyses based on molecular data can bring clarity in such cases, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on three genes (nuclear gene 28S and mitochondrial genes COI and 16S) from the Phyllium species of these islands. The results show distinct molecular divergence for several populations and suggest the presence of two new cryptic species, morphologically inseparable from Phyllium hausleithneri Brock, 1999. From Sumatra, the population originally thought to be a range expansion for Phyllium hausleithneri , is now here described as Phyllium nisus sp. nov., with the only consistent morphological difference being the color of the eggs between the two populations (dark brown in P. hausleithneri and tan in P. nisus sp. nov.). Further, an additional population with purple coxae from Java was morphologically examined and found to have no consistent features to separate it morphologically from the other purple coxae species. This cryptic species from Java was however shown to be molecularly distinct from the other purple coxae populations from Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia and is here described as Phyllium gardabagusi sp. nov. In addition, Phyllium giganteum is here officially reported from Java for the first time based on both historic and modern records of male specimens.

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          Most cited references34

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          IQ-TREE: A Fast and Effective Stochastic Algorithm for Estimating Maximum-Likelihood Phylogenies

          Large phylogenomics data sets require fast tree inference methods, especially for maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenies. Fast programs exist, but due to inherent heuristics to find optimal trees, it is not clear whether the best tree is found. Thus, there is need for additional approaches that employ different search strategies to find ML trees and that are at the same time as fast as currently available ML programs. We show that a combination of hill-climbing approaches and a stochastic perturbation method can be time-efficiently implemented. If we allow the same CPU time as RAxML and PhyML, then our software IQ-TREE found higher likelihoods between 62.2% and 87.1% of the studied alignments, thus efficiently exploring the tree-space. If we use the IQ-TREE stopping rule, RAxML and PhyML are faster in 75.7% and 47.1% of the DNA alignments and 42.2% and 100% of the protein alignments, respectively. However, the range of obtaining higher likelihoods with IQ-TREE improves to 73.3-97.1%.
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            ModelFinder: Fast Model Selection for Accurate Phylogenetic Estimates

            Model-based molecular phylogenetics plays an important role in comparisons of genomic data, and model selection is a key step in all such analyses. We present ModelFinder, a fast model-selection method that greatly improves the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates. The improvement is achieved by incorporating a model of rate-heterogeneity across sites not previously considered in this context, and by allowing concurrent searches of model-space and tree-space.
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              Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0.

              The Clustal W and Clustal X multiple sequence alignment programs have been completely rewritten in C++. This will facilitate the further development of the alignment algorithms in the future and has allowed proper porting of the programs to the latest versions of Linux, Macintosh and Windows operating systems. The programs can be run on-line from the EBI web server: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/tools/clustalw2. The source code and executables for Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers are available from the EBI ftp site ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/software/clustalw2/

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                19 February 2020
                : 913
                : 89-126
                [1 ] Associate Researcher, Montréal Insectarium, 4581 rue Sherbrooke est, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H1X 2B2
                [2 ] Richard Gilder Graduate School, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA
                [3 ] Department of Animal Evolution and Biodiversity, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Institute for Zoology and Anthropology, University of Göttingen, Untere Karspüle 2, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
                [4 ] Collection manager, Montréal Insectarium, 4581 rue Sherbrooke, Montréal, Québec, H1X 2B2, Canada
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Royce T. Cumming ( phylliidae.walkingleaf@ 123456gmail.com ), Sarah Bank ( sarah.bank@ 123456uni-goettingen.de )

                Academic editor: M. Gottardo


                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC0 Public Domain Dedication.

                German Research Foundation Montreal Insectarium
                Research Article
                Identification Key
                Molecular Systematics

                Animal science & Zoology

                cryptic species, molecular phylogeny, phasmid, taxonomy, walking leaf


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