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The Role of Graphene and Other 2D Materials in Solar Photovoltaics

1 , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 2

Advanced Materials

Wiley

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      The rise of graphene.

      Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
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        Single-layer MoS2 transistors.

        Two-dimensional materials are attractive for use in next-generation nanoelectronic devices because, compared to one-dimensional materials, it is relatively easy to fabricate complex structures from them. The most widely studied two-dimensional material is graphene, both because of its rich physics and its high mobility. However, pristine graphene does not have a bandgap, a property that is essential for many applications, including transistors. Engineering a graphene bandgap increases fabrication complexity and either reduces mobilities to the level of strained silicon films or requires high voltages. Although single layers of MoS(2) have a large intrinsic bandgap of 1.8 eV (ref. 16), previously reported mobilities in the 0.5-3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) range are too low for practical devices. Here, we use a halfnium oxide gate dielectric to demonstrate a room-temperature single-layer MoS(2) mobility of at least 200 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), similar to that of graphene nanoribbons, and demonstrate transistors with room-temperature current on/off ratios of 1 × 10(8) and ultralow standby power dissipation. Because monolayer MoS(2) has a direct bandgap, it can be used to construct interband tunnel FETs, which offer lower power consumption than classical transistors. Monolayer MoS(2) could also complement graphene in applications that require thin transparent semiconductors, such as optoelectronics and energy harvesting.
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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]NanoScience Technology Center; University of Central Florida; Orlando FL 32826 USA
            [2 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering; University of Central Florida; Orlando FL 32816 USA
            [3 ]College of Optics and Photonics; University of Central Florida; Orlando FL 32816 USA
            Journal
            Advanced Materials
            Adv. Mater.
            Wiley
            09359648
            January 2019
            January 2019
            September 06 2018
            : 31
            : 1
            : 1802722
            10.1002/adma.201802722
            © 2018

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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