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      NF-κB: linking inflammation and immunity to cancer development and progression

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      Nature Reviews Immunology

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          There has been much effort recently to probe the long-recognized relationship between the pathological processes of infection, inflammation and cancer. For example, epidemiological studies have shown that approximately 15% of human deaths from cancer are associated with chronic viral or bacterial infections. This Review focuses on the molecular mechanisms that connect infection, inflammation and cancer, and it puts forward the hypothesis that activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) by the classical, IKK-beta (inhibitor-of-NF-kappaB kinase-beta)-dependent pathway is a crucial mediator of inflammation-induced tumour growth and progression, as well as an important modulator of tumour surveillance and rejection.

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          Most cited references 55

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          IFNgamma and lymphocytes prevent primary tumour development and shape tumour immunogenicity.

          Lymphocytes were originally thought to form the basis of a 'cancer immunosurveillance' process that protects immunocompetent hosts against primary tumour development, but this idea was largely abandoned when no differences in primary tumour development were found between athymic nude mice and syngeneic wild-type mice. However, subsequent observations that nude mice do not completely lack functional T cells and that two components of the immune system-IFNgamma and perforin-help to prevent tumour formation in mice have led to renewed interest in a tumour-suppressor role for the immune response. Here we show that lymphocytes and IFNgamma collaborate to protect against development of carcinogen-induced sarcomas and spontaneous epithelial carcinomas and also to select for tumour cells with reduced immunogenicity. The immune response thus functions as an effective extrinsic tumour-suppressor system. However, this process also leads to the immunoselection of tumour cells that are more capable of surviving in an immunocompetent host, which explains the apparent paradox of tumour formation in immunologically intact individuals.
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            NF-kappaB in cancer: from innocent bystander to major culprit.

            Nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a sequence-specific transcription factor that is known to be involved in the inflammatory and innate immune responses. Although the importance of NF-KB in immunity is undisputed, recent evidence indicates that NF-kappaB and the signalling pathways that are involved in its activation are also important for tumour development. NF-kappaB should therefore receive as much attention from cancer researchers as it has already from immunologists.
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              Reactive oxygen species promote TNFalpha-induced death and sustained JNK activation by inhibiting MAP kinase phosphatases.

              TNFalpha is a pleiotropic cytokine that induces either cell proliferation or cell death. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation increases susceptibility to TNFalpha-induced death, concurrent with sustained JNK activation, an important contributor to the death response. Sustained JNK activation in NF-kappaB-deficient cells was suggested to depend on reactive oxygen species (ROS), but how ROS affect JNK activation was unclear. We now show that TNFalpha-induced ROS, whose accumulation is suppressed by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, cause oxidation and inhibition of JNK-inactivating phosphatases by converting their catalytic cysteine to sulfenic acid. This results in sustained JNK activation, which is required for cytochrome c release and caspase 3 cleavage, as well as necrotic cell death. Treatment of cells or experimental animals with an antioxidant prevents H(2)O(2) accumulation, JNK phosphatase oxidation, sustained JNK activity, and both forms of cell death. Antioxidant treatment also prevents TNFalpha-mediated fulminant liver failure without affecting liver regeneration.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Immunology
                Nat Rev Immunol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1474-1733
                1474-1741
                October 2005
                September 20 2005
                October 2005
                : 5
                : 10
                : 749-759
                Article
                10.1038/nri1703
                16175180
                © 2005

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