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      Stent Application for the Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms

      , MD, PhD, , MD, PhD, , MD, PhD

      Neurointervention

      Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology

      Intracranial aneurysm, Stent, Endovascular Procedures

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          Abstract

          Rapid and striking development in both the techniques and devices make it possible to treat most of cerebral aneurysms endovascularly. Stent has become one of the most important tools in treating difficult aneurysms not feasible for simple coiling. The physical features, the dimensions, and the functional characteristics of the stents show considerable differences. There are also several strategies and tips to treat difficult aneurysms by using stent and coiling. Nevertheless, they require much experience in clinical practice as well as knowledge of the stents to treat cerebral aneurysms safely and effectively. In this report, a brief review of properties of the currently available stents and strategies of their application is presented.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Neuroform stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-neck intracranial aneurysms: strategies in stent deployment and midterm follow-up.

          To evaluate the midterm results of intracranial stent-assisted coil embolization in the treatment of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms and to assess the efficacy of various strategies used in stent deployment. A retrospective study of 42 patients with 46 wide-necked cerebral aneurysms enrolled in a prospective single-center registry of patients treated with a Neuroform stent (Boston Scientific/Target, Fremont, CA), a flexible self-expanding nitinol stent, was performed. Twenty-seven of 46 aneurysms were unruptured aneurysms, 14 were recanalized aneurysms, and five were acutely ruptured. Thirty-nine aneurysms were located in the anterior and seven in the posterior circulation. Mean aneurysm size was 9.8 mm. Stenting before coiling was performed in 13 of 45 aneurysms (29%), coiling before stenting in 27 of 45 aneurysms (60%), and stenting alone in five of 45 aneurysms (11%). The balloon remodeling technique for coiling before stenting was performed in 77% of patients. Angiographic and clinical follow up was available in 31 patients with 33 aneurysms and ranged from 3 to 24 months. Neuroform stenting was attempted in 46 wide-necked aneurysms (42 patients). Forty-nine stent sessions were performed, including three poststent retreatments. In 46 of 49 sessions (94%), successful deployment of 47 stents for 45 aneurysms was obtained. In 40 aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coiling, angiographic results showed 14 (35%) aneurysm occlusions, 18 (45%) neck remnants, and eight (20%) residual aneurysms. In five recanalized aneurysms treated with stenting alone, no changes were observed in four (80%) aneurysms and one (20%) neck remnant reduced in size. At angiographic follow-up in 30 aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coiling, there were 17 (57%) aneurysm occlusions, seven (23%) neck remnants, and six (20%) residual aneurysms. In three recanalized aneurysms treated with stent alone, two (67%) neck remnants remained unchanged and one (33%) neck remnant decreased in size. Procedural morbidity was observed in two of 42 patients (4.8%) and one patient died. On clinical follow-up, the modified Rankin Scale score was 0 in 27 patients (87%), 1 in three patients (10%), and 2 (3%) in one patient. No aneurysm bled during the follow-up period. These results indicate that Neuroform stent-assisted coil embolization is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term durability of stent-assisted aneurysm occlusion and tolerance to the stent.
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            Intra-aneurysmal thrombosis as a possible cause of delayed aneurysm rupture after flow-diversion treatment.

            FD technology enables reconstructive repair of otherwise difficult-to-treat intracranial aneurysms. These stentlike devices may induce progressive aneurysm thrombosis without additional implants and may initiate complete reverse vessel remodeling. The associated vascular biologic processes are as yet only partially understood. From 12 different centers, 13 cases of delayed postprocedural aneurysm rupture were recorded and analyzed. Symptom, aneurysm location and morphology, and the time elapsed from treatment until rupture were analyzed. There were 10 internal carotid and 3 basilar artery aneurysms. Mean aneurysm diameter was 22 ± 6 mm. Eleven patients were symptomatic before treatment. A single FD was used for all saccular aneurysms, while fusiform lesions were treated by using multiple devices. A supplementary loose coiling of the aneurysm was performed in 1 patient only. Ten patients developed early aneurysm rupture after FD treatment (mean, 16 days; range, 2-48 days); in 3 patients, rupture occurred 3-5 months after treatment. In all cases, most of the aneurysm cavity was thrombosed before rupture. The biologic mechanisms predisposing to rupture under these conditions are reviewed and discussed FDs alone may modify hemodynamics in ways that induce extensive aneurysm thrombosis. Under specific conditions, however, instead of reverse remodeling and cicatrization, aggressive thrombus-associated autolysis of the aneurysm wall may result in delayed rupture.
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              Flow-diverter stent for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a prospective study in 29 patients with 34 aneurysms.

              The purpose of this study is to report our preliminary experience with the flow-diverter Silk stent for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. This prospective study was approved by the authors' ethical committees. Twenty-nine patients with 34 fusiform or wide-necked unruptured aneurysms were included and treated by Silk stent placement alone by 2 physicians in 3 different centers. Technical issues, immediate findings, delayed complications, clinical follow-up, and imaging follow-up at 3 and 6 months were assessed. Endovascular treatment was successfully performed in 26 patients (90%). In 3 patients, the stent could not be delivered. Mortality and morbidity rates were of 4% (1 of 26) and 15% (4 of 26), respectively; 1 patient died from a delayed aneurysm rupture related to stent migration, 3 experienced a thromboembolic event, and 1 patient developed progressive visual disturbances related to an increased mass effect. Clinical outcome in 25 patients was unchanged (n=19), improved (n=2), or worsened (=4). Angiographic follow-up in 24 patients (29 aneurysms) showed 20 complete occlusions (69%), 1 neck remnant (3.5%), and 8 incomplete occlusions (27.5%). Significant parent artery stenosis at 6 months occurred in 8 cases (33%). Despite the potential interest of the Silk flow-diverter stent to treat complex intracranial aneurysms without coils, the delayed complication rate is quite high and leads to use this technique only in selective cases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neurointervention
                NI
                Neurointervention
                Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology
                2093-9043
                2233-6273
                August 2011
                31 August 2011
                : 6
                : 2
                : 53-70
                Affiliations
                Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Byung Moon Kim, MD, PhD, Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine Severance Hospital, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752, Korea. Tel. 82.2.2228.7400, Fax. 82.2.393.3035, bmoon21@ 123456hanmail.net
                Article
                10.5469/neuroint.2011.6.2.53
                3214816
                22125751
                Copyright © 2011 Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Neurosciences

                endovascular procedures, stent, intracranial aneurysm

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