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      Internet of Things-Based Smart Farming Monitoring System for Bolting Reduction in Onion Farms

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          Abstract

          According to the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan is amongst the top ten onion-producing countries in the world. Though in Pakistan, most of the districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa produce onions, Malakand division lonely contributes 60% of the total onion production of the country. In onion farming, bolting is an insidious phenomenon that occurs in onion plants due to fluctuations in environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and light intensity. Due to bolting, the flowering stem of an onion plant is produced before the crop is harvested, resulting in a poor-quality harvest and yield. Therefore, from a farmer’s perspective, it is highly desirable to monitor and control the environmental factors to avoid bolting. In this paper, we propose and design a new prototype, namely, a smart farming monitoring system (SFMS) for bolting reduction, which is based on the generic three-layered IoT architecture. By using IoT (Internet of things) technology and careful remote monitoring, a more favorable environment can be provided to reduce and avoid onion bolting. To analyze the efficacy and performance of the proposed SFMS, a real test-bed implementation was carried out. The SFMS prototype was installed both in the open and in a greenhouse environment to monitor onion crops. Based on the data received via sensors, the percentage of onion bolting was recorded as 16.7% in the open environment while 3% in the closed environment. In the closed environment, optimal temperature, humidity, and light intensity were provided to the onion crops using the SFMS. For this reason, the percentage of onion bolting was reduced from 16.7% to 3%, consequently yielding better onion production. Moreover, the SFMS is a low-cost, easy-to-install solution that is developed with locally available hardware and resources, and we believe that this new solution can transform conventional onion farming into a more productive and convenient smart farming in the region.

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          Most cited references 7

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          A survey on Internet of Things architectures

           P.P. Ray (2018)
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            Internet of things: Vision, applications and research challenges

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              IoT and agriculture data analysis for smart farm

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Scientific Programming
                Scientific Programming
                Hindawi Limited
                1875-919X
                1058-9244
                July 23 2021
                July 23 2021
                : 2021
                : 1-15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Network Systems & Security Research Group (NSSRG), Department of Computer Science & Information Technology, University of Malakand, Chakdara 18800, Dir (L), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
                [2 ]Department of Computer Science and Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249, China
                [3 ]Beijing Key Lab of Petroleum Data Mining, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing 102249, China
                [4 ]Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science and Arts at Belgarn, University of Bisha, Sabt Al-Alaya 61985, Saudi Arabia
                [5 ]Department of Biology, The University of Haripur, Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
                [6 ]Department of Information Technology, Hazara University Mansehra, Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
                Article
                10.1155/2021/7101983
                © 2021

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