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      Anticoagulant therapy in pediatrics

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          Abstract

          Thromboembolic episodes are disorders encountered in both children and adults, but relatively more common in adults. However, the occurrence of venous thromboembolism and use of anticoagulants in pediatrics are increasing. Unfractionated Heparin (UH) is used as a treatment and prevention of thrombosis in adults and critically ill children. Heparin utilization in pediatric is limited by many factors and the most important ones are Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) and anaphylaxis. However, Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) appears to be an effective and safe alternative treatment. Hence, it is preferred over than UH due to favorable pharmacokinetic and side effect profile. Direct Thrombin Inhibitors (DTI) is a promising class over the other anticoagulants since it offers potential advantages. The aim of this review is to discuss the differences between adult and pediatric thromboembolism and to review the current anticoagulants in terms of pharmacological action, doses, drug reactions, pharmacokinetics, interactions, and parameters. This review also highlights the differences between old and new anticoagulant therapy in pediatrics.

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          Most cited references 79

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          Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

          The use of warfarin reduces the rate of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation but requires frequent monitoring and dose adjustment. Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, may provide more consistent and predictable anticoagulation than warfarin. In a double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 14,264 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were at increased risk for stroke to receive either rivaroxaban (at a daily dose of 20 mg) or dose-adjusted warfarin. The per-protocol, as-treated primary analysis was designed to determine whether rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin for the primary end point of stroke or systemic embolism. In the primary analysis, the primary end point occurred in 188 patients in the rivaroxaban group (1.7% per year) and in 241 in the warfarin group (2.2% per year) (hazard ratio in the rivaroxaban group, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.96; P<0.001 for noninferiority). In the intention-to-treat analysis, the primary end point occurred in 269 patients in the rivaroxaban group (2.1% per year) and in 306 patients in the warfarin group (2.4% per year) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.03; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.12 for superiority). Major and nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding occurred in 1475 patients in the rivaroxaban group (14.9% per year) and in 1449 in the warfarin group (14.5% per year) (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.11; P=0.44), with significant reductions in intracranial hemorrhage (0.5% vs. 0.7%, P=0.02) and fatal bleeding (0.2% vs. 0.5%, P=0.003) in the rivaroxaban group. In patients with atrial fibrillation, rivaroxaban was noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism. There was no significant between-group difference in the risk of major bleeding, although intracranial and fatal bleeding occurred less frequently in the rivaroxaban group. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and Bayer; ROCKET AF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00403767.).
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            Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty (RECORD4): a randomised trial.

            Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism is recommended for at least 10 days after total knee arthroplasty; oral regimens could enable shorter hospital stays. We aimed to test the efficacy and safety of oral rivaroxaban for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total knee arthroplasty. In a randomised, double-blind, phase III study, 3148 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty received either oral rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily, beginning 6-8 h after surgery, or subcutaneous enoxaparin 30 mg every 12 h, starting 12-24 h after surgery. Patients had mandatory bilateral venography between days 11 and 15. The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of any deep-vein thrombosis, non-fatal pulmonary embolism, or death from any cause up to day 17 after surgery. Efficacy was assessed as non-inferiority of rivaroxaban compared with enoxaparin in the per-protocol population (absolute non-inferiority limit -4%); if non-inferiority was shown, we assessed whether rivaroxaban had superior efficacy in the modified intention-to-treat population. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00362232. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 67 (6.9%) of 965 patients given rivaroxaban and in 97 (10.1%) of 959 given enoxaparin (absolute risk reduction 3.19%, 95% CI 0.71-5.67; p=0.0118). Ten (0.7%) of 1526 patients given rivaroxaban and four (0.3%) of 1508 given enoxaparin had major bleeding (p=0.1096). Oral rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily for 10-14 days was significantly superior to subcutaneous enoxaparin 30 mg given every 12 h for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total knee arthroplasty. Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development.
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              The metabolism and disposition of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, in humans.

              The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran (BIBR 953 ZW, beta-alanine, N-[[2-[[[4-(aminoiminomethyl)phenyl]amino]methyl]-1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl]carbonyl]-N-2-pyridinyl) were studied in 10 healthy males, who received 200 mg of [(14)C]dabigatran etexilate (BIBR 1048 MS, the oral prodrug of dabigatran) or an i.v. infusion of 5 mg of [(14)C]dabigatran. Radioactivity was measured in plasma, urine, and feces over 1 week. The metabolite pattern was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line radioactivity detection, and metabolite structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry. Dabigatran etexilate was rapidly converted to dabigatran, with peak plasma dabigatran concentrations being attained after approximately 1.5 h; the bioavailability of dabigatran after p.o. administration of dabigatran etexilate was 7.2%. Dabigatran was predominantly excreted in the feces after p.o. treatment and in the urine after i.v. treatment. The mean terminal half-life of dabigatran was approximately 8 h. The predominant metabolic reaction was esterase-mediated hydrolysis of dabigatran etexilate to dabigatran. Phase I metabolites accounted for
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Basic Clin Pharm
                J Basic Clin Pharm
                JBCP
                Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0976-0105
                0976-0113
                March 2014-May 2014
                : 5
                : 2
                : 27-33
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Beirut, Lebanon
                [1 ] Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Beirut, Lebanon
                [2 ] Department of PharmD, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Beirut, Lebanon
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Mariam K. Dabbous, Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Saleem Salam, Beirut, Lebanon. E-mail: mariam.dabbous@ 123456liu.edu.lb
                Article
                JBCP-5-27
                10.4103/0976-0105.134947
                4074692
                Copyright: © Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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