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      Salvage radiotherapy improves survival in patients with locoregionally relapsed stage IE–IIE extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type

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          This study aims to retrospectively analyze the salvage treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with early stage locoregionally recurrent (LRR) extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL).


          Between January 1995 and December 2014, 540 patients with stage IE–IIE ENKTCL received chemotherapy (ChT) and/or radiotherapy (RT) in our hospital, and among these, 56 patients who experienced LRR were included in this study. Salvage treatments included RT alone in 4 patients (7.1%), ChT alone in 30 patients (53.6%), and ChT combined with RT in 22 patients (39.3%). Median RT dose was 50 Gy (range 36–60 Gy). The effect of salvage treatment on overall survival (OS) rate from start of initial treatment (IT) as well as that after recurrence was analyzed.


          The overall median follow-up time from IT was 35.9 months, with a 3-year OS of 72.7%. The median follow-up time after relapse was 14.8 months, and the 3-year OS after relapse was 57.8%. Compared to ChT alone (n=30), treatment with salvage RT (n=26) improved the OS from IT ( p=0.040) and after relapse ( p=0.009); further, re-irradiation improved the OS from IT ( p=0.018) and after relapse ( p=0.019). Acute and late toxicities after re-irradiation were mostly grades 1–2 (84.3%). At both univariate and multivariate analyses, better Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), RT in IT, and RT in salvage treatment were found to be significant factors influencing OS after recurrence.


          Salvage RT improved survival in patients with LRR stage IE–IIE ENKTCL, and the treatment toxicity was acceptable.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Report of an international workshop to standardize response criteria for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. NCI Sponsored International Working Group.

          Standardized guidelines for response assessment are needed to ensure comparability among clinical trials in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). To achieve this, two meetings were convened among United States and international lymphoma experts representing medical hematology/oncology, radiology, radiation oncology, and pathology to review currently used response definitions and to develop a uniform set of criteria for assessing response in clinical trials. The criteria that were developed include anatomic definitions of response, with normal lymph node size after treatment of 1.5 cm in the longest transverse diameter by computer-assisted tomography scan. A designation of complete response/unconfirmed was adopted to include patients with a greater than 75% reduction in tumor size after therapy but with a residual mass, to include patients-especially those with large-cell NHL-who may not have residual disease. Single-photon emission computed tomography gallium scans are encouraged as a valuable adjunct to assessment of patients with large-cell NHL, but such scans require appropriate expertise. Flow cytometric, cytogenetic, and molecular studies are not currently included in response definitions. Response rates may be the most important objective in phase II trials where the activity of a new agent is important and may provide support for approval by regulatory agencies. However, the goals of most phase III trials are to identify therapies that will prolong the progression-free survival, if not the overall survival, of the treated patients. We hope that these guidelines will serve to improve communication among investigators and comparability among clinical trials until clinically relevant laboratory and imaging studies are identified and become more widely available.
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            Phase I/II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for localized nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG0211.

            To explore a more effective treatment for localized nasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, we conducted a phase I/II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Treatments comprised concurrent radiotherapy (50 Gy) and 3 courses of dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide, and carboplatin (DeVIC). Patients with a newly diagnosed stage IE or contiguous IIE disease with cervical node involvement and a performance status (PS) of 0 to 2 were eligible for enrollment. The primary end point of the phase II portion was a 2-year overall survival in patients treated with the recommended dose. Of the 33 patients enrolled, 10 patients were enrolled in the phase I portion and a two thirds dose of DeVIC was established as the recommended dose. Twenty-seven patients (range, 21 to 68; median, 56 years) treated with the recommended dose showed the following clinical features: male:female, 17:10; stage IE, 18; stage IIE, 9; B symptoms present, 10; elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase, 5; and PS 2, 2. With a median follow-up of 32 months, the 2-year overall survival was 78% (95% CI, 57% to 89%). This compared favorably with the historical control of radiotherapy alone (45%). Of the 26 patients assessable for a response, 20 (77%) achieved a complete response, with one partial response. The overall response rate was 81%. The most common grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity was mucositis related to radiation (30%). No treatment-related deaths were observed. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy using multidrug resistance-nonrelated agents and etoposide is a safe and effective treatment for localized nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma and warrants further investigation.
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              Treatment outcome and pattern of failure in 77 patients with sinonasal natural killer/T-cell or T-cell lymphoma.

              Sinonasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell or T-cell lymphoma behaves quite differently from other lymphomas. The objective of this study was to investigate clinical features, treatment outcomes, and failure patterns in patients with this type of sinonasal lymphoma. From September, 1977 to December, 2000, 77 patients with sinonasal NK/T-cell lymphoma or T-cell lymphoma who had received radiotherapy (R/T), chemotherapy (C/T), or both (R/T and C/T) were evaluated retrospectively. Fifty-six patients (73%) had locoregional disease only, and 21 patients (27%) had systemic involvement. Forty-four patients (57%) achieved a complete remission (CR). The 5-year overall survival rate was 36% (median follow-up, 89 months). Achievement of CR was the only prognostic factor for survival in multivariate analysis. Among patients with locoregional disease, the CR rate was 63%, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 42%. Combined R/T and C/T or R/T alone resulted in better survival compared with C/T alone (5-year survival rates, 59%, 50%, and 15%, respectively; P = 0.01). Incidences of locoregional and systemic failure were 43% and 30%, respectively. Outcome was dismal for patients with systemic disease, with a CR rate of 43% and a 5-year survival rate of 25%. Only 2 of 21 patients had sustained remissions. The locoregional and systemic failure rates were 57% and 71%, respectively. Treatment outcomes were unsatisfactory for patients with locoregional and systemic sinonasal NK/T-cell or T-cell lymphoma. R/T could not control locoregional disease satisfactorily, and C/T was unable to eradicate systemic disease in many patients. High-dose therapy may be worth studying in these patients. New treatments should be investigated to increase remission rates, prevent failure, and improve survival. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                06 June 2018
                : 14
                : 1083-1090
                [1 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang 421001, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang 421001, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou 510060, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yujing Zhang, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfeng Road East, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 137 1060 8235, Email zhangyj@ 123456sysucc.org.cn

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2018 Tong et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                prognostic analysis, extranodal nk/t-cell lymphoma, recurrence, radiotherapy, nasal type


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