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      Adverse Effects of Autoclaved Diets on the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder in Rats

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          Abstract

          Background: Autoclaving rodent diets is common in laboratory animals, but autoclaving increases the formation of dietary advanced glycation end-products (AGE). We studied the effect of autoclaved (AC) diet alone or in combination with a diet high in bioavailable phosphorus on biochemistries of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), intestinal gene expression, and oxidative stress. Methods: Male CKD rats (Cy/+) and normal littermates were fed 1 of 3 diets: AC 0.7% phosphorus grain-based diet for 28 weeks (AC); AC diet for 17 weeks followed by non-autoclaved (Non-AC) 0.7% phosphorus casein diet until 28 weeks (AC + Casein); or Non-AC diet for 16 weeks followed by a Non-AC purified diet until 30 weeks (Non-AC + Casein). Results: AC diets contained ~3× higher AGEs and levels varied depending on the location within the autoclave. Rats fed the AC and AC + Casein diets had higher total AGEs and oxidative stress, irrespective of kidney function. Kidney function was more severely compromised in CKD rats fed AC or AC + Casein compared to Non-AC + Casein. There was a disease-by-diet interaction for plasma phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and c-terminal fibroblast growth factor-23, driven by high values in the CKD rats fed the AC + Casein diet. Compared to Non-AC + Casein, AC and AC + Casein-fed groups had increased expression of receptor of AGEs and intestinal NADPH oxidase dual oxidase-2, independent of kidney function. Conclusions: Autoclaving rodent diets impacts the progression of CKD and CKD-MBD, highlighting the critical importance of standardizing diets in experiments.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          AJN
          Am J Nephrol
          10.1159/issn.0250-8095
          American Journal of Nephrology
          S. Karger AG
          0250-8095
          1421-9670
          2020
          May 2020
          06 March 2020
          : 51
          : 5
          : 381-389
          Affiliations
          aDivision of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
          bDepartment of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
          cDepartment of Applied Health Science, School of Public Health-Bloomington, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
          dDepartment of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA
          eDivision of Nephrology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA
          fLaboratory Animal Resource Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
          gRoudebush Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
          Author notes
          *Sharon M. Moe, MD, Division of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 950 W Walnut Street, R2-202, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (USA), smoe@iu.edu
          Article
          506729 Am J Nephrol 2020;51:381–389
          10.1159/000506729
          32146472
          © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 9
          Categories
          Laboratory Investigation: Research Article

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