Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. The extent of cardiovascular abnormalities in patients with mild-asymptomatic disease is unclear. Using sensitive echocardiographic methods, we compared cardiac structure and function in patients with mild PHPT and in healthy controls, and evaluated the changes after parathyroidectomy (PTX).
In a prospective case–control design, we studied 51 PHPT patients without any cardiovascular risk factors/diseases and 51 healthy matched controls. Cardiac structure, and systolic and diastolic function were evaluated by echocardiography and Doppler tissue imaging (DTI). Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were measured.
We observed no differences in systolic or diastolic function or in cardiac morphology between the PHPT patients and the age-matched healthy controls. The regional peak systolic myocardial velocities ( S′) measured with DTI decreased at all sites ( P<0.05) after PTX (tricuspid annulus 14.23±1.85 to 13.48±1.79, septal 8.48±0.96 to 7.97±0.85, and lateral 9.61±2.05 to 8.87±1.63 cm/s, part of the mitral annulus). At baseline, systolic BP was higher in patients compared to controls (127.6±17.1 vs 119.6±12.6 mmHg, P<0.05). After PTX, both systolic (127.6±17.1 vs 124.6±16.6 mmHg, P<0.05) and diastolic (80.3±9.6 vs 78.4±8.6 mmHg, P<0.05) BP decreased.
Our results indicate that patients with PHPT without cardiovascular risk factors have a normal global systolic and diastolic function and cardiac morphology. BP and the systolic velocities were marginally reduced after PTX, but reflected the values of the control group. Our findings warrant further investigation of the clinical and prognostic significance of these possibly disease-related inotropic effects.