In Africa, Alstonia boonei is used folklorically for the management of the multitude of conditions including cataract, which accounts for 50% of cases of blindness in the region. The current study set out to probe the traditional use of the aqueous extract of Alstonia boonei stem bark (ABE) as an anticataract remedy using Sprague Dawley rat models. We investigated the probable phytochemical constituents in the extract, in vitro antioxidant potential, and its in vitro aldose reductase inhibition. For the anticataract investigations, diabetic cataract was induced using galactose in 3-week-old Sprague Dawley rats, and age-related cataract was induced by the administration of sodium selenite to 10-day-old rat pups. Cataract scores in both models were determined after treatment with 30, 100, and 300 mgkg −1 doses of ABE and 10 mlkg −1 of distilled water. Lens glutathione, total lens protein, soluble lens proteins (alpha-A) crystallin, and aquaporin 0 levels in the enucleated lens homogenates were determined. Changes in lens to body weight were also determined with histopathological analysis done on the lenses in the selenite-induced cataract model. The presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, and triterpenoids was identified in the extract. The extract inhibited aldose reductase activity with IC 50 of 92.30 μgml −1. The 30, 100, and 300 mgkg −1ABE-treated rats recorded significantly ( p < 0.05) reduced cataract scores indicating a delay in cataractogenesis in galactose-induced cataract and in selenite-induced cataractogenesis as well. Markers of lens transparency such as AQP0, alpha-A crystallin, and total lens proteins and lens glutathione levels were significantly ( p < 0.05) preserved. In conclusion, this study establishes the anticataract potential of the aqueous stem bark extract of Alstonia boonei in Sprague Dawley rat models.