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      The Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Alstonia boonei Exhibits Anticataract Activity in Sprague Dawley Rat


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          In Africa, Alstonia boonei is used folklorically for the management of the multitude of conditions including cataract, which accounts for 50% of cases of blindness in the region. The current study set out to probe the traditional use of the aqueous extract of Alstonia boonei stem bark (ABE) as an anticataract remedy using Sprague Dawley rat models. We investigated the probable phytochemical constituents in the extract, in vitro antioxidant potential, and its in vitro aldose reductase inhibition. For the anticataract investigations, diabetic cataract was induced using galactose in 3-week-old Sprague Dawley rats, and age-related cataract was induced by the administration of sodium selenite to 10-day-old rat pups. Cataract scores in both models were determined after treatment with 30, 100, and 300 mgkg −1 doses of ABE and 10 mlkg −1 of distilled water. Lens glutathione, total lens protein, soluble lens proteins (alpha-A) crystallin, and aquaporin 0 levels in the enucleated lens homogenates were determined. Changes in lens to body weight were also determined with histopathological analysis done on the lenses in the selenite-induced cataract model. The presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, and triterpenoids was identified in the extract. The extract inhibited aldose reductase activity with IC 50 of 92.30  μgml −1. The 30, 100, and 300 mgkg −1ABE-treated rats recorded significantly ( p < 0.05) reduced cataract scores indicating a delay in cataractogenesis in galactose-induced cataract and in selenite-induced cataractogenesis as well. Markers of lens transparency such as AQP0, alpha-A crystallin, and total lens proteins and lens glutathione levels were significantly ( p < 0.05) preserved. In conclusion, this study establishes the anticataract potential of the aqueous stem bark extract of Alstonia boonei in Sprague Dawley rat models.

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          Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002.

          This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision. The number of people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of 161 million, of whom about 37 million were blind. The burden of visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world: the least developed regions carry the largest share. Visual impairment is also unequally distributed across age groups, being largely confined to adults 50 years of age and older. A distribution imbalance is also found with regard to gender throughout the world: females have a significantly higher risk of having visual impairment than males. Notwithstanding the progress in surgical intervention that has been made in many countries over the last few decades, cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment in all regions of the world, except in the most developed countries. Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma.
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            DPPH antioxidant assay revisited

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              Antioxidant activity of food constituents: an overview.

              Recently, there has been growing interest in research into the role of plant-derived antioxidants in food and human health. The beneficial influence of many foodstuffs and beverages including fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, and cacao on human health has been recently recognized to originate from their antioxidant activity. For this purpose, the most commonly methods used in vitro determination of antioxidant capacity of food constituents are reviewed and presented. Also, the general chemistry underlying the assays in the present paper was clarified. Hence, this overview provides a basis and rationale for developing standardized antioxidant capacity methods for the food, nutraceutical, and dietary supplement industries. In addition, the most important advantages and shortcomings of each method were detected and highlighted. The chemical principles of these methods are outlined and critically discussed. The chemical principles of methods of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical (ABTS(·+)) scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical scavenging, Fe(3+)-Fe(2+) transformation assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing power assay (Cuprac), Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (FCR assay), peroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical (O (2) (·-)) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging, hydroxyl radical (OH(·)) scavenging, singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) quenching assay and nitric oxide radical (NO(·)) scavenging assay are outlined and critically discussed. Also, the general antioxidant aspects of main food components were discussed by a number of methods which are currently used for detection of antioxidant properties food components. This review consists of two main sections. The first section is devoted to main components in the foodstuffs and beverages. The second general section is some definitions of the main antioxidant methods commonly used for determination of antioxidant activity of components in the foodstuffs and beverages. In addition, there are given some chemical and kinetic basis and technical details of the used methods.

                Author and article information

                Scientifica (Cairo)
                Scientifica (Cairo)
                1 August 2023
                : 2023
                : 5524137
                1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
                2Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
                3Biomedical and Clinical Research Centre, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
                4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
                5Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
                6Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Simone Carradori

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Adwoa Frema Amanfo et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 27 May 2023
                : 16 July 2023
                : 24 July 2023
                Funded by: Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
                Award ID: VC/OGR/15
                Research Article


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