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      The Modern Western Diet Rich in Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs): An Overview of Its Impact on Obesity and Early Progression of Renal Pathology


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          Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are an assorted group of molecules formed through covalent bonds between a reduced sugar and a free amino group of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Glycation alters their structure and function, leading to impaired cell function. They can be originated by physiological processes, when not counterbalanced by detoxification mechanisms, or derive from exogenous sources such as food, cigarette smoke, and air pollution. Their accumulation increases inflammation and oxidative stress through the activation of various mechanisms mainly triggered by binding to their receptors (RAGE). So far, the pathogenic role of AGEs has been evidenced in inflammatory and chronic diseases such as chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetic nephropathy. This review focuses on the AGE-induced kidney damage, by describing the molecular players involved and investigating its link to the excess of body weight and visceral fat, hallmarks of obesity. Research regarding interventions to reduce AGE accumulation has been of great interest and a nutraceutical approach that would help fighting chronic diseases could be a very useful tool for patients’ everyday lives.

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          Most cited references71

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          RAGE mediates a novel proinflammatory axis: a central cell surface receptor for S100/calgranulin polypeptides.

          S100/calgranulin polypeptides are present at sites of inflammation, likely released by inflammatory cells targeted to such loci by a range of environmental cues. We report here that receptor for AGE (RAGE) is a central cell surface receptor for EN-RAGE (extracellular newly identified RAGE-binding protein) and related members of the S100/calgranulin superfamily. Interaction of EN-RAGEs with cellular RAGE on endothelium, mononuclear phagocytes, and lymphocytes triggers cellular activation, with generation of key proinflammatory mediators. Blockade of EN-RAGE/RAGE quenches delayed-type hypersensitivity and inflammatory colitis in murine models by arresting activation of central signaling pathways and expression of inflammatory gene mediators. These data highlight a novel paradigm in inflammation and identify roles for EN-RAGEs and RAGE in chronic cellular activation and tissue injury.
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            Effect of collagen turnover on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products.

            Collagen molecules in articular cartilage have an exceptionally long lifetime, which makes them susceptible to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In fact, in comparison to other collagen-rich tissues, articular cartilage contains relatively high amounts of the AGE pentosidine. To test the hypothesis that this higher AGE accumulation is primarily the result of the slow turnover of cartilage collagen, AGE levels in cartilage and skin collagen were compared with the degree of racemization of aspartic acid (% d-Asp, a measure of the residence time of a protein). AGE (N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine, and pentosidine) and % d-Asp concentrations increased linearly with age in both cartilage and skin collagen (p < 0.0001). The rate of increase in AGEs was greater in cartilage collagen than in skin collagen (p < 0.0001). % d-Asp was also higher in cartilage collagen than in skin collagen (p < 0.0001), indicating that cartilage collagen has a longer residence time in the tissue, and thus a slower turnover, than skin collagen. In both types of collagen, AGE concentrations increased linearly with % d-Asp (p < 0.0005). Interestingly, the slopes of the curves of AGEs versus % d-Asp, i.e. the rates of accumulation of AGEs corrected for turnover, were identical for cartilage and skin collagen. The present study thus provides the first experimental evidence that protein turnover is a major determinant in AGE accumulation in different collagen types. From the age-related increases in % d-Asp the half-life of cartilage collagen was calculated to be 117 years and that of skin collagen 15 years, thereby providing the first reasonable estimates of the half-lives of these collagens.
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              Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-mediated neurite outgrowth and activation of NF-kappaB require the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor but different downstream signaling pathways.

              Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates neurite outgrowth in vitro on amphoterin-coated substrates. Ligation of RAGE by two other ligands, advanced glycation end products or amyloid beta-peptide, is suggested to play a role in cell injury mechanisms involving cellular oxidant stress and activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. However, the RAGE signaling pathways in neurite outgrowth and cell injury are largely unknown. Here we show that transfection of RAGE to neuroblastoma cells induces extension of filopodia and neurites on amphoterin-coated substrates. Furthermore, ligation of RAGE in transfected cells enhances NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. Both the RAGE-mediated neurite outgrowth and activation of NF-kappaB are blocked by deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of RAGE. Moreover, dominant negative Rac and Cdc42 but not dominant negative Ras inhibit the extension of neurites induced by RAGE-amphoterin interaction. In contrast, the activation of NF-kappaB is inhibited by dominant negative Ras but not Rac or Cdc42. These data suggest that distinct signaling pathways are used by RAGE to induce neurite outgrowth and regulate gene expression through NF-kappaB.

                Author and article information

                30 July 2019
                August 2019
                : 11
                : 8
                : 1748
                [1 ]Urological Research Institute, Division of Experimental Oncology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milano, Italy
                [2 ]Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele, 20132 Milano, Italy
                [3 ]PHYTOLAB (Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, Food supplement Technology and Analysis)-DiSIA, University of Florence, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence), Italy
                [4 ]Universidad de La Laguna, Dep de Medicina Interna, ITB, Instituto de Tecnologías Biomédicas, 38320 La Laguna, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: vago.riccardo@ 123456hsr.it ; Tel.: +39-02-2643-5664
                Author information
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 31 May 2019
                : 25 July 2019

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                advanced glycation end-products (ages),diet,renal disease,obesity,carboximethyl-lysine (cml)


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