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      Antioxidant Expression Response to Free Radicals in Active Men and Women Fallowing to a Session Incremental Exercise; Numerical Relationship Between Antioxidants and Free Radicals

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          Abstract

          Background

          Energy production is a necessary process to continue physical activities, and exercise is associated with more oxygen consumption and increase of oxidative stress. what seems important is the numerical relationship between antioxidant and free radicals. Although the activity of some enzymes increases with physical activities, but it is possible that gene expression of this enzyme is not changed during exercise.

          Objectives

          The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant enzymes gene expression and changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in men and women affected by a session of incremental exercise and to carefully and numerically assess the relationship between MDA changes and gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes.

          Materials and Methods

          12 active men and 12 active women (21 - 24 years old) participated voluntarily in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the subjects in three phases, before and after graduated exercise test (GXT) and 3 hours later (recovery).

          Results

          The gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme increased significantly in women in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). Catalase gene expression significantly increased in men in both phases (immediately & recovery) (P < 0.05). But the changes in active women were only significant immediately after the exercise. TAC levels increased significantly in men in the recovery phase and in active women immediately after the exercise (P < 0.05). MDA activity also increased significantly in men in both phases (P < 0.05). However, in women the increase was significant only in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). There was a reverse relationship between changes in MnSOD and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) levels and MDA in men (P < 0.05). In active women there was also a significant relationship between changes in MDA and gene expression of Cu/ZnSOD and TAC (P < 0.05).

          Conclusions

          The increase in free radicals during incremental exercises challenges gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. However, despite the negative effects of free radicals, in women, activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes respond appropriately to free radicals.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation.

           M Hadley,  H Draper (1989)
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            Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities.

            A coding scheme is presented for classifying physical activity by rate of energy expenditure, i.e., by intensity. Energy cost was established by a review of published and unpublished data. This coding scheme employs five digits that classify activity by purpose (i.e., sports, occupation, self-care), the specific type of activity, and its intensity as the ratio of work metabolic rate to resting metabolic rate (METs). Energy expenditure in kilocalories or kilocalories per kilogram body weight can be estimated for all activities, specific activities, or activity types. General use of this coding system would enhance the comparability of results across studies using self reports of physical activity.
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              Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history

              The topic of exercise-induced oxidative stress has received considerable attention in recent years, with close to 300 original investigations published since the early work of Dillard and colleagues in 1978. Single bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise can induce an acute state of oxidative stress. This is indicated by an increased presence of oxidized molecules in a variety of tissues. Exercise mode, intensity, and duration, as well as the subject population tested, all can impact the extent of oxidation. Moreover, the use of antioxidant supplements can impact the findings. Although a single bout of exercise often leads to an acute oxidative stress, in accordance with the principle of hormesis, such an increase appears necessary to allow for an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses. This review presents a comprehensive summary of original investigations focused on exercise-induced oxidative stress. This should provide the reader with a well-documented account of the research done within this area of science over the past 30 years.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Asian J Sports Med
                Asian J Sports Med
                10.5812/asjsm
                Kowsar
                Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
                Kowsar
                2008-000X
                2008-7209
                31 May 2016
                June 2016
                : 7
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, IR Iran
                [2 ]Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
                [3 ]Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Behrouz Baghaiee, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, IR Iran. Tel: +98-4533512085, Fax: +98-4533512081, E-mail: behrouz_phsport@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                10.5812/asjsm.29901
                5003305
                Copyright © 2016, Sports Medicine Research Center

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Sports medicine

                antioxidant enzyme, free radicals, exercise

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