• Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Septins of Platyhelminths: Identification, Phylogeny, Expression and Localization among Developmental Stages of Schistosoma mansoni

Read this article at

      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


      Septins are a family of eukaryotic GTP binding proteins conserved from yeasts to humans. Originally identified in mutants of budding yeast, septins participate in diverse cellular functions including cytokinesis, organization of actin networks, cell polarity, vesicle trafficking and many others. Septins assemble into heteroligomers to form filaments and rings. Here, four septins of Schistosoma mansoni are described, which appear to be conserved within the phylum Platyhelminthes. These orthologues were related to the SEPT5, SEPT10 and SEPT7 septins of humans, and hence we have termed the schistosome septins SmSEPT5, SmSEPT10, SmSEPT7.1 and SmSEPT7.2. Septin transcripts were detected throughout the developmental cycle of the schistosome and a similar expression profile was observed for septins in the stages examined, consistent with concerted production of these proteins to form heterocomplexes. Immunolocalization analyses undertaken with antibodies specific for SmSEPT5 and SmSEPT10 revealed a broad tissue distribution of septins in the schistosomulum and colocalization of septin and actin in the longitudinal and circular muscles of the sporocyst. Ciliated epidermal plates of the miracidium were rich in septins. Expression levels for these septins were elevated in germ cells in the miracidium and sporocyst. Intriguingly, septins colocalize with the protonephridial system of the cercaria, which extends laterally along the length of this larval stage. Together, the findings revealed that schistosomes expressed several septins which likely form filaments within the cells, as in other eukaryotes. Identification and localization demonstrating a broad distribution of septins across organs and tissues of schistosome contributes towards the understanding of septins in schistosomes and other flatworms.

      Author Summary

      Schistosoma mansoni is one of the causative agents of schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease affecting over 230 million people in the developing world. Research on new therapies for this parasitic disease has been facilitated by the recent publication of a curated draft sequence of the schistosome genome. Here, we describe proteins from the septin family found in the genome of S. mansoni. The septins are increasingly recognized as central components of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. They are linked to numerous cellular functions, although the precise role(s) of these proteins is not fully understood. Schistosome septins were seen in the miracidium and sporocyst larval stages, on superficial structures, within epidermal plates and in muscles. Notably, septins were prominently expressed in the germ cells of larval stages of the blood fluke. In addition, septins were ubiquitously immuno-localized throughout the organs and tissues of the schistosomulum stage of the parasite. This is the first report on septins in schistosomes; these proteins are broadly distributed among organs and tissues of the parasite where they likely perform diverse functions. Identification and localization demonstrating a broad distribution of septins across organs and tissues of schistosome contributes towards the understanding of septins in schistosomes and other flatworms.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 58

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

       K Livak,  T Schmittgen (2001)
      The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0.

        The Clustal W and Clustal X multiple sequence alignment programs have been completely rewritten in C++. This will facilitate the further development of the alignment algorithms in the future and has allowed proper porting of the programs to the latest versions of Linux, Macintosh and Windows operating systems. The programs can be run on-line from the EBI web server: The source code and executables for Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers are available from the EBI ftp site
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models.

          MrBayes 3 performs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis combining information from different data partitions or subsets evolving under different stochastic evolutionary models. This allows the user to analyze heterogeneous data sets consisting of different data types-e.g. morphological, nucleotide, and protein-and to explore a wide variety of structured models mixing partition-unique and shared parameters. The program employs MPI to parallelize Metropolis coupling on Macintosh or UNIX clusters.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Departamento de Física e Informática, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil
            [2 ]Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Tropical Medicine, and Research Center for Neglected Tropical and Infectious Diseases of Poverty, School of Medicine & Health Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America
            [3 ]Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República (UDELAR), Montevideo, Uruguay
            [4 ]Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States of America
            Rush University Medical Center, United States of America
            Author notes

            The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Conceived and designed the experiments: AEZ GR APUA RDM PJB. Performed the experiments: AEZ GR AP. Analyzed the data: AEZ GR AP VHM APUA RDM PJB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AEZ GR VHM RDM AP. Wrote the paper: AEZ GR VHM AP APUA RDM PJB.

            Role: Editor
            PLoS Negl Trop Dis
            PLoS Negl Trop Dis
            PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
            December 2013
            19 December 2013
            : 7
            : 12
            24367716 3868516 PNTD-D-13-00556 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002602

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Pages: 14
            This work was supported by NIH Shared Instrumentation Grant S10RR025565 and CNPq INCT-INBEQMeDI grant. AEZ received a CNPq and CAPES fellowship (BEX: 9193/11-1). RDM and APUA are recipients of productivity fellowships from CNPq. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
            Research Article

            Infectious disease & Microbiology


            Comment on this article