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      Care pathways and treatment patterns for patients with heart failure in China: results from a cross-sectional survey

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          The objective of this study was to describe the clinical care pathways, management and treatment patterns, and hospitalizations for patients with heart failure (HF) in China.

          Subjects and methods

          A cross-sectional survey of cardiologists and their patients with HF was conducted. Patient record forms were completed by 150 cardiologists for 10 consecutive patients. Patients for whom a patient record form was completed were invited to complete a patient self-completion questionnaire.


          Most of the 1,500 patients (mean [SD] age 66 [10] years; 55% male) included in the study received care in tier-2 and -3 hospitals in large cities. Cardiologists were responsible for initial consultation, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with HF. The use of guideline-recommended diagnostics was high. However, guideline-recommended double- and triple-combination therapy was received by only 51% and 18% of patients, respectively. In total, 20% of patients with HF reported that they were not consulted on the choice of therapy. Concordance was high (≥80%) between matched cardiologist and patient pairs for the occurrence of side effects, while cardiologists more often under- than overreported the occurrence of side effects of treatment reported by patients.


          The management of HF was predominantly overseen by cardiologists. The use of diagnostic tests was high, but the use of guideline-recommended treatment was low in this population. Improved communication between patients and cardiologists is essential to optimize treatment decision making and to increase awareness of treatment side effects.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Are hospitalized or ambulatory patients with heart failure treated in accordance with European Society of Cardiology guidelines? Evidence from 12,440 patients of the ESC Heart Failure Long-Term Registry.

          To evaluate how recommendations of European guidelines regarding pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for heart failure (HF) are adopted in clinical practice.
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            Patterns of hospital performance in acute myocardial infarction and heart failure 30-day mortality and readmission.

            In 2009, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services is publicly reporting hospital-level risk-standardized 30-day mortality and readmission rates after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF). We provide patterns of hospital performance, based on these measures. We calculated the 30-day mortality and readmission rates for all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries ages 65 years or older with a primary diagnosis of AMI or HF, discharged between July 2005 and June 2008. We compared weighted risk-standardized mortality and readmission rates across Hospital Referral Regions and hospital structural characteristics. The median 30-day mortality rate was 16.6% for AMI (range, 10.9% to 24.9%; 25th to 75th percentile, 15.8% to 17.4%; 10th to 90th percentile, 14.7% to 18.4%) and 11.1% for HF (range, 6.6% to 19.8%; 25th to 75th percentile, 10.3% to 12.0%; 10th to 90th percentile, 9.4% to 13.1%). The median 30-day readmission rate was 19.9% for AMI (range, 15.3% to 29.4%; 25th to 75th percentile, 19.5% to 20.4%; 10th to 90th percentile, 18.8% to 21.1%) and 24.4% for HF (range, 15.9% to 34.4%; 25th to 75th percentile, 23.4% to 25.6%; 10th to 90th percentile, 22.3% to 27.0%). We observed geographic differences in performance across the country. Although there were some differences in average performance by hospital characteristics, there were high and low hospital performers among all types of hospitals. In a recent 3-year period, 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates for AMI and HF varied among hospitals and across the country. The readmission rates were particularly high.
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              Real-world physician and patient behaviour across countries: Disease-Specific Programmes - a means to understand.

              Treatment guidelines and strategies are often based on data from randomized controlled trials and observational clinical studies. These sources drive treatment decisions, yet the data they provide may have limited relevance to the wider population in real-world clinical practice due to the narrow selection criteria applied to patients in trials. Information used to inform clinical practice and improve patient outcomes can, therefore, be unreflective of real-world clinical situations. The purpose of this article is to assess the value of Adelphi Disease Specific Programmes (DSPs) as sources of real world data. DSPs are large, multinational, observational studies of clinical practice for a range of common chronic diseases. Treatment practice data are collected by physicians (n = 700) who are asked to provide information for the next 10 patients consulting for a specific condition. These patients (n = 7000) are also invited to fill out a self-completion form providing their own assessment of symptoms, expectations and quality of life. This article provides examples of the statistical techniques that have been employed to analyse the data in terms of cost/burden of illness, quality of life, disease severity and progression, compliance and adherence to therapy, impact of treatment guidelines and analyses of unmet need. DSPs can support clinical understanding of how diseases are managed including rationale for doctor decision-making and patient attitudes to their condition. Comparisons with other data sources and limitations of the programmes are discussed (including the fact that, unlike claims databases and registries, the DSPs are cross-sectional and not longitudinal).

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                26 July 2018
                : 12
                : 2311-2321
                [1 ]Real World Research, Adelphi Real World, Bollington, UK, james.jackson@ 123456adelphigroup.com
                [2 ]Real World Evidence, Cardio-Metabolic Franchise, Novartis Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden
                [3 ]Wellmera AG, Basel, Switzerland
                [4 ]Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharma China, Beijing, China
                [5 ]Medical Affairs, Cardio-Metabolic Franchise, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: James DS Jackson Adelphi Real World, Adelphi Mill, Grimshaw Lane, Bollington, Cheshire SK10 5JB, UK, Tel +44 162 557 7371, Fax +44 162 557 7294, Email james.jackson@ 123456adelphigroup.com
                © 2018 Jackson et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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