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      Anti–Interleukin-17 Monoclonal Antibody Ixekizumab in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis

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          Abstract

          Type 17 helper T cells have been suggested to play a pathological role in psoriasis. They secrete several proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17A (also known as interleukin-17). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab (LY2439821), a humanized anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody, for psoriasis treatment. In our phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 142 patients with chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis to receive subcutaneous injections of 10, 25, 75, or 150 mg of ixekizumab or placebo at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with reduction in the psoriasis area-and-severity index (PASI) score by at least 75% at 12 weeks. Secondary end points included the proportion of patients with reduction in the PASI score by at least 90% or by 100%. At 12 weeks, the percentage of patients with a reduction in the PASI score by at least 75% was significantly greater with ixekizumab (except with the lowest, 10-mg dose)--150 mg (82.1%), 75 mg (82.8%), and 25 mg (76.7%)--than with placebo (7.7%, P<0.001 for each comparison), as was the percentage of patients with a reduction in the PASI score by at least 90%: 150 mg (71.4%), 75 mg (58.6%), and 25 mg (50.0%) versus placebo (0%, P<0.001 for each comparison). Similarly, a 100% reduction in the PASI score was achieved in significantly more patients in the 150-mg group (39.3%) and the 75-mg group (37.9%) than in the placebo group (0%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Significant differences occurred at as early as 1 week and were sustained through 20 weeks. Adverse events occurred in 63% of patients in both the combined ixekizumab groups and in the placebo group. No serious adverse events or major cardiovascular events were observed. Use of a humanized anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody, ixekizumab, improved the clinical symptoms of psoriasis. Further studies are needed to establish its long-term safety and efficacy in patients with psoriasis. (Funded by Eli Lilly; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01107457.).

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          Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI)--a simple practical measure for routine clinical use.

          A simple practical questionnaire technique for routine clinical use, the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) is described. One hundred and twenty patients with different skin diseases were asked about the impact of their disease and its treatment on their lives; a questionnaire, the DLQI, was developed based on their answers. The DLQI was then completed by 200 consecutive new patients attending a dermatology clinic. This study confirmed that atopic eczema, psoriasis and generalized pruritus have a greater impact on quality of life than acne, basal cell carcinomas and viral warts. The DLQI was also completed by 100 healthy volunteers; their mean score was very low (1.6%, s.d. 3.5) compared with the mean score for the dermatology patients (24.2%, s.d. 20.9). The reliability of the DLQI was examined in 53 patients using a 1 week test-retest method and reliability was found to be high (gamma s = 0.99).
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            Interleukin-17 family members and inflammation.

            IL-17A was cloned more than 10 years ago and six IL-17 family members (IL-17A-F) have subsequently been described. IL-17A is largely produced by activated memory T lymphocytes but stimulates innate immunity and host defense. IL-17A and IL-17F both mobilize neutrophils partly through granulopoeisis and CXC chemokine induction, as well as increased survival locally. IL-17A and IL-17F production by T lymphocytes is regulated by IL-23 independent of T cell receptor activation. Increasing evidence shows that IL-17 family members play an active role in inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. This places IL-17 family members and their receptors as potential targets for future pharmacotherapy.
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              Efficacy and safety of ustekinumab, a human interleukin-12/23 monoclonal antibody, in patients with psoriasis: 76-week results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (PHOENIX 1).

              Interleukins 12 and 23 have important roles in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. We assessed ustekinumab, a human monoclonal antibody directed against these cytokines, for the treatment of psoriasis. In this phase III, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 766 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis were randomly assigned to receive ustekinumab 45 mg (n=255) or 90 mg (n=256) at weeks 0 and 4 and then every 12 weeks; or placebo (n=255) at weeks 0 and 4, with subsequent crossover to ustekinumab at week 12. Patients who were initially randomised to receive ustekinumab at week 0 who achieved long-term response (at least 75% improvement in psoriasis area and severity index [PASI 75] at weeks 28 and 40) were re-randomised at week 40 to maintenance ustekinumab or withdrawal from treatment until loss of response. Both randomisations were done with a minimisation method via a centralised interactive voice response system. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving PASI 75 at week 12. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00267969. All randomised patients were included in the efficacy analysis. 171 (67.1%) patients receiving ustekinumab 45 mg, 170 (66.4%) receiving ustekinumab 90 mg, and eight (3.1%) receiving placebo achieved PASI 75 at week 12 (difference in response rate vs placebo 63.9%, 95% CI 57.8-70.1, p<0.0001 for 45 mg and 63.3%, 57.1-69.4, p<0.0001 for 90 mg). At week 40, long-term response had been achieved by 150 patients in the 45 mg group and 172 patients in the 90 mg group. Of these, 162 patients were randomly assigned to maintenance ustekinumab and 160 to withdrawal. PASI 75 response was better maintained to at least 1 year in those receiving maintenance ustekinumab than in those withdrawn from treatment at week 40 (p<0.0001 by log-rank test). During the placebo-controlled phase, adverse events occurred in 278 (54.5%) of the 510 patients receiving ustekinumab and 123 (48.2%) of the 255 receiving placebo. Serious adverse events occurred in six (1.2%) of 510 patients receiving ustekinumab and in two (0.8%) of 255 receiving placebo in this phase. The pattern of adverse events was much the same in the placebo crossover and randomised withdrawal phases as it was in the placebo-controlled phase. Ustekinumab seems to be efficacious for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis; dosing every 12 weeks maintains efficacy for at least a year in most patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                March 29 2012
                March 29 2012
                : 366
                : 13
                : 1190-1199
                10.1056/NEJMoa1109997
                22455413
                © 2012
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