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      Bone turnover in malnourished children

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      The Lancet

      Elsevier BV

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          Quantitation of hydroxypyridinium crosslinks in collagen by high-performance liquid chromatography.

          An HPLC method for quantifying the 3-hydroxypyridinium crosslinks of collagen is described. It can be applied to crude hydrolysates of all types of connective tissue. Mineralized tissues can be hydrolyzed directly and analyzed without interference from the mineral ions. The hydroxylysyl (HP) and lysyl (LP) forms of hydroxypyridinium residue were resolved on a reverse-phase C18 column using a gradient of acetonitrile in water and 0.01 M n-heptafluorobutyric acid as an ion-pairing agent. The crosslinking amino acids were accurately quantified down to 2 PM (1 ng) injected, by detecting their natural fluorescence with a spectrofluorometer. Tissues in which hydroxypyridinium crosslinks were plentiful included all forms of cartilage, bone, dentin, ligament, tendon, fascia, intervertebral disc, lung, gut, cervix, aorta, and vitreous humor. Among normal tissues, LP, the minor form of the crosslink, was present in significant amounts relative to HP only in bone and dentin. Both crosslinks were essentially absent from skin, cornea, rat tail tendon, and basement membranes.
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            Collagen cross-linking in human bone and articular cartilage. Age-related changes in the content of mature hydroxypyridinium residues.

            The concentration in collagen of hydroxypyridinium cross-linking amino acids was measured in samples of bone and cartilage from human subjects aged from 1 month to 80 years. Cortical and cancellous bone samples were dissected and analysed separately. In both bone and cartilage, the content of this mature form of cross-link reached a maximum by 10-15 years of age (the amount in cartilage being 5-10 times that in bone), then stayed essentially in the same range throughout adult life. In bone the ratio of the two chemical variants of the mature cross-link, hydroxylysylpyridinoline to lysylpyridinoline, was constant throughout adult life at 3.5:1, whereas in cartilage it was always greater than 10:1. The ratio of hydroxypyridinium cross-links to borohydride-reducible keto-amine cross-links also changed with age. The reducible cross-links in bone collagen decreased steeply in content between birth and 25 years, but persisted in significant amounts throughout adult life. Reducible cross-links had virtually disappeared from cartilage by 10-15 years of age, being replaced by hydroxypyridinium residues, their maturation products. Cancellous and cortical bone collagens showed similar trends with age in their content of mature cross-links, though for each subject the concentration in cancellous bone was always lower than in cortical bone, presumably reflecting the higher turnover rate and hence the more immature state of cancellous bone.
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              Urinary excretion of pyridinoline crosslinks correlates with bone turnover measured on iliac crest biopsy in patients with vertebral osteoporosis.

              Vertebral osteoporosis, a common disorder in elderly women, is characterized by a wide spectrum of bone turnover abnormalities on iliac crest biopsy. The level of bone formation can be assessed noninvasively by measuring serum osteocalcin, whereas conventional biochemical markers of bone resorption lack specificity and do not reflect bone resorption assessed from histology. We measured the urinary excretion of pyridinoline crosslinks Pyr and D-Pyr, a specific marker of bone and cartilage collagen degradation, along with serum osteocalcin and urinary hydroxyproline, in 36 elderly women with vertebral osteoporosis who had a simultaneous iliac crest biopsy. Urinary pyridinoline crosslinks, but not hydroxyproline, correlated significantly with histologic resorption, assessed by the osteoclast surface (r = 0.35, p less than 0.05 for Pyr; r = 0.46, p less than 0.01 for D-Pyr). In addition, Pyr and D-Pyr were correlated with the bone formation rate as well as serum osteocalcin, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.80, p less than 0.0001. These data indicate that Pyr and D-Pyr are sensitive markers of bone turnover in elderly women with vertebral osteoporosis. The poor correlation between the level of urinary collagen crosslinks and histological assessment of bone resorption indicates the low sensitivity of iliac crest histomorphometry in the measurement of resorption rate of the skeleton.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Lancet
                The Lancet
                Elsevier BV
                01406736
                December 1992
                December 1992
                : 340
                : 8834-8835
                : 1493-1496
                Article
                10.1016/0140-6736(92)92754-4
                © 1992

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