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      Neurobiological and Hormonal Mechanisms Regulating Women’s Sleep


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          Sleep is crucial for optimal well-being, and sex differences in sleep quality have significant implications for women’s health. We review the current literature on sex differences in sleep, such as differences in objective and subjective sleep measures and their relationship with aging. We then discuss the convincing evidence for the role of ovarian hormones in regulating female sleep, and survey how these hormones act on a multitude of brain regions and neurochemicals to impact sleep. Lastly, we identify several important areas in need of future research to narrow the knowledge gap and improve the health of women and other understudied populations.

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          Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

          Little is known about lifetime prevalence or age of onset of DSM-IV disorders. To estimate lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the recently completed National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted between February 2001 and April 2003 using the fully structured World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nine thousand two hundred eighty-two English-speaking respondents aged 18 years and older. Lifetime DSM-IV anxiety, mood, impulse-control, and substance use disorders. Lifetime prevalence estimates are as follows: anxiety disorders, 28.8%; mood disorders, 20.8%; impulse-control disorders, 24.8%; substance use disorders, 14.6%; any disorder, 46.4%. Median age of onset is much earlier for anxiety (11 years) and impulse-control (11 years) disorders than for substance use (20 years) and mood (30 years) disorders. Half of all lifetime cases start by age 14 years and three fourths by age 24 years. Later onsets are mostly of comorbid conditions, with estimated lifetime risk of any disorder at age 75 years (50.8%) only slightly higher than observed lifetime prevalence (46.4%). Lifetime prevalence estimates are higher in recent cohorts than in earlier cohorts and have fairly stable intercohort differences across the life course that vary in substantively plausible ways among sociodemographic subgroups. About half of Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM-IV disorder sometime in their life, with first onset usually in childhood or adolescence. Interventions aimed at prevention or early treatment need to focus on youth.
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            Orexins and Orexin Receptors: A Family of Hypothalamic Neuropeptides and G Protein-Coupled Receptors that Regulate Feeding Behavior

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              The hypocretins: hypothalamus-specific peptides with neuroexcitatory activity.

              We describe a hypothalamus-specific mRNA that encodes preprohypocretin, the putative precursor of a pair of peptides that share substantial amino acid identities with the gut hormone secretin. The hypocretin (Hcrt) protein products are restricted to neuronal cell bodies of the dorsal and lateral hypothalamic areas. The fibers of these neurons are widespread throughout the posterior hypothalamus and project to multiple targets in other areas, including brainstem and thalamus. Hcrt immunoreactivity is associated with large granular vesicles at synapses. One of the Hcrt peptides was excitatory when applied to cultured, synaptically coupled hypothalamic neurons, but not hippocampal neurons. These observations suggest that the hypocretins function within the CNS as neurotransmitters.

                Author and article information

                Front Neurosci
                Front Neurosci
                Front. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                14 January 2021
                : 14
                : 625397
                Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Stanford University , Stanford, CA, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Yuval Nir, Tel Aviv University, Israel

                Reviewed by: Ketema Paul, UCLA Department of Physiology, United States; Leila Tarokh, University of Bern, Switzerland

                *Correspondence: Kimberly J. Jennings, kimjenn@ 123456stanford.edu

                This article was submitted to Sleep and Circadian Rhythms, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience

                Copyright © 2021 Dorsey, de Lecea and Jennings.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 02 November 2020
                : 22 December 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 255, Pages: 21, Words: 0
                Funded by: Stanford Bio-X 10.13039/100011098
                Funded by: National Institute of Mental Health 10.13039/100000025
                Funded by: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development 10.13039/100009633
                Funded by: Rose Hills Foundation 10.13039/100015591

                estrogen,progesterone,sex difference,arousal,ovarian hormones
                estrogen, progesterone, sex difference, arousal, ovarian hormones


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