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      Correlates of Urea Kinetic Modeling during Hemodialysis in Patients with Acute Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          The current guidelines on dialysis adequacy in acute renal failure (ARF) are loosely defined and have been extrapolated from patients with end-stage renal disease. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare three methods of urea kinetic modeling measurement in patients with ARF receiving intermittent hemodialysis, (2) to compare prescribed to delivered dose of dialysis, and (3) to explore the factors that are associated with dialysis delivery. ‘Single-pool’ urea kinetic modeling was assessed by the Ureakin<sup>®</sup> software and the second-generation equation which uses a logarithmic estimate of spKt/V. ‘Equilibrated’ Kt/V (eKt/V) was calculated using the rate adjustment equation. The prescribed dose was derived using the manufacturer’s specifications of the dialyzer clearance, prescribed time, actual delivered blood and dialysate flow, and estimates of volume of urea distribution. A total of 78 consecutive spKt/V measurements were obtained in 24 patients. The mean urea reduction ratio was 51 ± 1%. The delivered spKt/V was significantly lower than that prescribed (0.87 ± 0.03 or 0.83 ± 0.03 vs. 1.28 ± 0.05; p = 0.0001). The equilibrated Kt/V was markedly lower than the delivered spKt/V (0.73 ± 0.03 vs. 0.83 ± 0.03; p = 0.0001). Univariate analyses demonstrated that female gender, low body mass index, low predialysis weight, use of cellulose acetate dialyzers, and increased prescribed time were associated with increased odds of prescribed spKt/V ≧1.2. Similarly, old age, increased delivered time, and high cytokine production were associated with increased odds of delivered spKt/V ≧1.2. In summary, while the impact of delivered intermittent hemodialysis on the survival of patients with ARF remains to be determined, these results indicate that dialysis delivery is suboptimal in ARF, and empiric dosing should strongly consider factors related to lean body mass, including age and gender.

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          Most cited references 6

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          The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

          Among patients with end-stage renal disease who are treated with hemodialysis, solute clearance during dialysis and nutritional adequacy are determinants of mortality. We determined the effects of reductions in blood urea nitrogen concentrations during dialysis and changes in serum albumin concentrations, as an indicator of nutritional status, on mortality in a large group of patients treated with hemodialysis. We analyzed retrospectively the demographic characteristics, mortality rate, duration of hemodialysis, serum albumin concentration, and urea reduction ratio (defined as the percent reduction in blood urea nitrogen concentration during a single dialysis treatment) in 13,473 patients treated from October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. The risk of death was determined as a function of the urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration. As compared with patients with urea reduction ratios of 65 to 69 percent, patients with values below 60 percent had a higher risk of death during follow-up (odds ratio, 1.28 for urea reduction ratios of 55 to 59 percent and 1.39 for ratios below 55 percent). Fifty-five percent of the patients had urea reduction ratios below 60 percent. The duration of dialysis was not predictive of mortality. The serum albumin concentration was a more powerful (21 times greater) predictor of death than the urea reduction ratio, and 60 percent of the patients had serum albumin concentrations predictive of an increased risk of death (values below 4.0 g per deciliter). The odds ratio for death was 1.48 for serum albumin concentrations of 3.5 to 3.9 g per deciliter and 3.13 for concentrations of 3.0 to 3.4 g per deciliter. Diabetic patients had lower serum albumin concentrations and urea reduction ratios than nondiabetic patients. Low urea reduction ratios during dialysis are associated with increased odds ratios for death. These risks are worsened by inadequate nutrition.
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            Effect of the dialysis membrane in the treatment of patients with acute renal failure.

            The mortality rate among patients with acute renal failure remains high, and the role of the biocompatibility of the dialysis membrane in the resolution of this disorder is not known. We prospectively studied 72 patients with acute renal failure who required hemodialysis and assigned them to two treatment groups. One group underwent dialysis with the widely used cuprophane dialysis membrane, which activates the complement system and leukocytes, and the other group underwent dialysis with a synthetic polymethyl methacrylate membrane, which has a more limited effect on complement and leukocytes. Scores on the Acute Physiology, Age, and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) were calculated at the initiation of dialysis. Survival and the recovery of renal function were determined with the use of proportional-hazards and exact logistic-regression analyses. When dialysis was initiated, the patients in the two groups were similar in terms of age, APACHE II scores, the prevalence of oliguria, and biochemical indexes of renal failure. Twenty-three of the 37 patients (62 percent) in the group undergoing dialysis with the polymethyl methacrylate membrane recovered renal function, as compared with 13 of the 35 patients (37 percent) in the group undergoing dialysis with the cuprophane membrane (P = 0.04 after adjustment for the APACHE II score). The median number of dialysis treatments required before the recovery of renal function was 5 in the former group and 17 in the latter group (P = 0.02). Twenty-one patients (57 percent) undergoing dialysis with the polymethyl methacrylate membrane survived, as compared with 13 patients (37 percent) undergoing dialysis with the cuprophane membrane (P = 0.11). Of the 20 patients in each group who initially had nonoliguric acute renal failure, the survival rates were 80 percent with the polymethyl methacrylate membrane and 40 percent with the cuprophane membrane (P = 0.01). Among patients with acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis, the use of the polymethyl methacrylate membrane, as compared with the cuprophane membrane, resulted in improved recovery of renal function.
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              Biocompatible membranes in acute renal failure: prospective case-controlled study

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2002
                2002
                30 January 2002
                : 20
                : 2
                : 154-160
                Affiliations
                Divisions of aNephrology and bClinical Care Research, Department of Medicine, New England Medical Center, Boston, Mass., USA
                Article
                47002 Blood Purif 2002;20:154–160
                10.1159/000047002
                11818678
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 33, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/47002
                Categories
                Original Paper

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