Anemia is seen in chronic kidney insufficiency (CKI), dialysis patients, congestive heart failure (CHF), and renal transplantation. Anemia can lead to progressive cardiac damage as well as progressive renal damage. It is not generally appreciated that CHF itself may be a very common contributor to both the production of anemia as well as to the progression of the renal failure. Correction of the anemia with erythropoietin and, as necessary, intravenous iron, may prevent the deterioration of both the heart and the kidneys. We suggest that there is a triangular relationship, a vicious circle, between CHF, CKI and anemia where each of these three can both cause and be caused by the other. We call this syndrome the cardio-renal anemia (CRA) syndrome. All physicians, especially cardiologists and internists who treat CKI and CHF, should be made aware of the dangers of anemia in CKI and CHF and should work with nephrologists to correct it.