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      Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease and Congestive Heart Failure

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          Abstract

          Anemia is seen in chronic kidney insufficiency (CKI), dialysis patients, congestive heart failure (CHF), and renal transplantation. Anemia can lead to progressive cardiac damage as well as progressive renal damage. It is not generally appreciated that CHF itself may be a very common contributor to both the production of anemia as well as to the progression of the renal failure. Correction of the anemia with erythropoietin and, as necessary, intravenous iron, may prevent the deterioration of both the heart and the kidneys. We suggest that there is a triangular relationship, a vicious circle, between CHF, CKI and anemia where each of these three can both cause and be caused by the other. We call this syndrome the cardio-renal anemia (CRA) syndrome. All physicians, especially cardiologists and internists who treat CKI and CHF, should be made aware of the dangers of anemia in CKI and CHF and should work with nephrologists to correct it.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Effect of anaemia and cardiovascular disease on surgical mortality and morbidity.

          Guidelines have been offered on haemoglobin thresholds for blood transfusion in surgical patients. However, good evidence is lacking on the haemoglobin concentrations at which the risk of death or serious morbidity begins to rise and at which transfusion is indicated. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 1958 patients, 18 years and older, who underwent surgery and declined blood transfusion for religious reasons. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality and the secondary outcome was 30-day mortality or in-hospital 30-day morbidity. Cardiovascular disease was defined as a history of angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or peripheral vascular disease. The 30-day mortality was 3.2% (95% CI 2.4-4.0). The mortality was 1.3% (0.8-2.0) in patients with preoperative haemoglobin 12 g/dL or greater and 33.3% (18.6-51.0) in patients with preoperative haemoglobin less than 6 g/dL. The increase in risk of death associated with low preoperative haemoglobin was more pronounced in patients with cardiovascular disease than in patients without (interaction p < 0.03). The effect of blood loss on mortality was larger in patients with low preoperative haemoglobin than in those with a higher preoperative haemoglobin (interaction p < 0.001). The results were similar in analyses of postoperative haemoglobin and 30-day mortality or in-hospital morbidity. A low preoperative haemoglobin or a substantial operative blood loss increases the risk of death or serious morbidity more in patients with cardiovascular disease than in those without. Decisions about transfusion should take account of cardiovascular status and operative blood loss as well as the haemoglobin concentration.
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            Reduced kidney function and anemia as risk factors for mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

            We sought to evaluate the relationship between the level of kidney function, level of hematocrit and their interaction on all-cause mortality in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Anemia and reduced kidney function occur frequently in patients with heart failure. The level of hematocrit and its relationship with renal function have not been evaluated as risk factors for mortality in patients with LV dysfunction. We retrospectively examined the Studies Of LV Dysfunction (SOLVD) database. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was predicted using a recently validated formula. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to compare survival times between groups stratified by level of kidney function (predicted GFR) and hematocrit. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to explore the relationship of survival time to level of kidney function, hematocrit and their interaction. Lower GFR and hematocrit were associated with a higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In univariate analysis, reduced kidney function and lower hematocrit, in men and in women, were risk factors for all-cause mortality (p < 0.001 for both). After adjustment for other factors significant in univariate analysis, a 10 ml/min/1.73 m(2) lower GFR and a 1% lower hematocrit were associated with a 1.064 (95% CI: 1.033, 1.096) and 1.027 (95% CI: 1.015, 1.038) higher risk for mortality, respectively. At lower GFR and lower hematocrit, the risk was higher (p = 0.022 for the interaction) than that predicted by both factors independently. Decreased kidney function and anemia are risk factors for all-cause mortality in patients with LV dysfunction, especially when both are present. These relationships need to be confirmed in additional studies.
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              Anemia is associated with worse symptoms, greater impairment in functional capacity and a significant increase in mortality in patients with advanced heart failure.

              This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between anemia and heart failure (HF) prognosis. Although it is known that chronic diseases, including HF, may be associated with anemia, the impact of hemoglobin (Hb) level on symptoms and survival in HF has not been fully defined. We analyzed a cohort of 1,061 patients with advanced HF (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class III or IV and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] 14.8 g/dl. Mean Hb was 13.6, and values ranged from 7.1 to 19.0 g/dl. The Hb groups were similar in age, medication profile, LVEF, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status and serum sodium. Lower Hb was associated with an impaired hemodynamic profile, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and lower albumin, total cholesterol and body mass index. Patients in the lower Hb quartiles were more likely to be NYHA functional class IV (p < 0.0001) and have lower peak oxygen consumption (PKVO(2)) (p < 0.0001). Survival at one year was higher with increased Hb quartile (55.6%, 63.9%, 71.4% and 74.4% for quartiles 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). On multivariate analysis adjusting for known HF prognostic factors, low Hb proved to be an independent predictor of mortality (relative risk 1.131, confidence interval 1.045 to 1.224 for each decrease of 1 g/dl). In chronic HF, relatively mild degrees of anemia are associated with worsened symptoms, functional status and survival.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7535-5
                978-3-318-00939-2
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2003
                2003
                22 January 2003
                : 21
                : 1
                : 124-130
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrology and bCardiology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
                Article
                67856 Blood Purif 2003;21:124–130
                10.1159/000067856
                12596758
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 68, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/67856
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