Blog
About

6
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Comparison of Renal Effects of Ezetimibe–Statin Combination versus Statin Monotherapy: A Propensity-Score-Matched Analysis

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Neither lowering of blood lipid levels nor treatment with statins definitively improves renal outcomes. Ezetimibe, a non-statin antilipidemic agent, is known to not only decrease blood lipid levels but also reduce inflammatory response and activate autophagy. We evaluated the effect of adding ezetimibe to a statin on renal outcome compared with statin monotherapy by analyzing longitudinal data of 4537 patients treated with simvastatin 20 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg (S + E) or simvastatin 20 mg alone (S) for more than 180 days. A propensity-score-based process was used to match baseline characteristics, medical history, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between S + E and S groups. Changes in serum creatinine and incidence of renal events, defined as doubling of serum creatinine to ≥1.5 mg/dL or occurrence of end-stage renal disease after the first day of treatment initiation, were compared between the groups. Among 3104 well-matched patients with a median follow-up of 4.2 years, the S + E group showed a significantly lower risk of renal events than the S group (hazard ratio 0.58; 95% CI 0.35-0.95, P = 0.032). In addition, the S + E group tended to preserve renal function compared with the S group throughout follow-up, as assessed by serum creatinine changes ( P-values for time–group interactions <0.001). These data support the beneficial effects on renal function when combining ezetimibe with a statin.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 46

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Blood pressure and end-stage renal disease in men.

          End-stage renal disease in the United States creates a large burden for both individuals and society as a whole. Efforts to prevent the condition require an understanding of modifiable risk factors. We assessed the development of end-stage renal disease through 1990 in 332,544 men, 35 to 57 years of age, who were screened between 1973 and 1975 for entry into the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). We used data from the national registry for treated end-stage renal disease of the Health Care Financing Administration and from records on death from renal disease from the National Death Index and the Social Security Administration. During an average of 16 years of follow-up, 814 subjects either died of end-stage renal disease or were treated for that condition (15.6 cases per 100,000 person-years of observation). A strong, graded relation between both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and end-stage renal disease was identified, independent of associations between the disease and age, race, income, use of medication for diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction, serum cholesterol concentration, and cigarette smoking. As compared with men with an optimal level of blood pressure (systolic pressure or = 210 mm Hg or diastolic pressure > or = 120 mm Hg) was 22.1 (P < 0.001). These relations were not due to end-stage renal disease that occurred soon after screening and, in the 12,866 screened men who entered the MRFIT study, were not changed by taking into account the base-line serum creatinine concentration and urinary protein excretion. The estimated risk of end-stage renal disease associated with elevations of systolic pressure was greater than that linked with elevations of diastolic pressure when both variables were considered together. Elevations of blood pressure are a strong independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease; interventions to prevent the disease need to emphasize the prevention and control of both high-normal and high blood pressure.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Necrotic cells trigger a sterile inflammatory response through the Nlrp3 inflammasome.

            Dying cells are capable of activating the innate immune system and inducing a sterile inflammatory response. Here, we show that necrotic cells are sensed by the Nlrp3 inflammasome resulting in the subsequent release of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta. Necrotic cells produced by pressure disruption, hypoxic injury, or complement-mediated damage were capable of activating the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Nlrp3 inflammasome activation was triggered in part through ATP produced by mitochondria released from damaged cells. Neutrophilic influx into the peritoneum in response to necrotic cells in vivo was also markedly diminished in the absence of Nlrp3. Nlrp3-deficiency moreover protected animals against mortality, renal dysfunction, and neutrophil influx in an in vivo renal ischemic acute tubular necrosis model. These findings suggest that the inhibition of Nlrp3 inflammasome activity can diminish the acute inflammation and damage associated with tissue injury.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The NLRP3 inflammasome promotes renal inflammation and contributes to CKD.

              Inflammation significantly contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Inflammasome-dependent cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-18, play a role in CKD, but their regulation during renal injury is unknown. Here, we analyzed the processing of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice, which suggested activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome during renal injury. Compared with wild-type mice, Nlrp3(-/-) mice had less tubular injury, inflammation, and fibrosis after UUO, associated with a reduction in caspase-1 activation and maturation of IL-1β and IL-18; these data confirm that the Nlrp3 inflammasome upregulates these cytokines in the kidney during injury. Bone marrow chimeras revealed that Nlrp3 mediates the injurious/inflammatory processes in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cellular compartments. In tissue from human renal biopsies, a wide variety of nondiabetic kidney diseases exhibited increased expression of NLRP3 mRNA, which correlated with renal function. Taken together, these results strongly support a role for NLRP3 in renal injury and identify the inflammasome as a possible therapeutic target in the treatment of patients with progressive CKD.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                jcm
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                MDPI
                2077-0383
                15 March 2020
                March 2020
                : 9
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea; JANGGU1985@ 123456yuhs.ac (J.B.); nkhong84@ 123456yuhs.ac (N.H.); BWANLEE@ 123456yuhs.ac (B.-W.L.); EDGO@ 123456yuhs.ac (E.S.K.); BSCHA@ 123456yuhs.ac (B.-S.C.)
                [2 ]Institute of Endocrine Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: yholee@ 123456yuhs.ac ; Tel.: +82-2-2228-1943
                Article
                jcm-09-00798
                10.3390/jcm9030798
                7141215
                32183405
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                ezetimibe, statin, renal outcome

                Comments

                Comment on this article