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The Yeast Nuclear Pore Complex : Composition, Architecture, and Transport Mechanism

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      Abstract

      An understanding of how the nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic exchange requires a comprehensive inventory of the molecular components of the NPC and a knowledge of how each component contributes to the overall structure of this large molecular translocation machine. Therefore, we have taken a comprehensive approach to classify all components of the yeast NPC (nucleoporins). This involved identifying all the proteins present in a highly enriched NPC fraction, determining which of these proteins were nucleoporins, and localizing each nucleoporin within the NPC. Using these data, we present a map of the molecular architecture of the yeast NPC and provide evidence for a Brownian affinity gating mechanism for nucleocytoplasmic transport.

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      Additional modules for versatile and economical PCR-based gene deletion and modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

      An important recent advance in the functional analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes is the development of the one-step PCR-mediated technique for deletion and modification of chromosomal genes. This method allows very rapid gene manipulations without requiring plasmid clones of the gene of interest. We describe here a new set of plasmids that serve as templates for the PCR synthesis of fragments that allow a variety of gene modifications. Using as selectable marker the S. cerevisiae TRP1 gene or modules containing the heterologous Schizosaccharomyces pombe his5+ or Escherichia coli kan(r) gene, these plasmids allow gene deletion, gene overexpression (using the regulatable GAL1 promoter), C- or N-terminal protein tagging [with GFP(S65T), GST, or the 3HA or 13Myc epitope], and partial N- or C-terminal deletions (with or without concomitant protein tagging). Because of the modular nature of the plasmids, they allow efficient and economical use of a small number of PCR primers for a wide variety of gene manipulations. Thus, these plasmids should further facilitate the rapid analysis of gene function in S. cerevisiae.
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        CRM1 is an export receptor for leucine-rich nuclear export signals.

        CRM1 is distantly related to receptors that mediate nuclear protein import and was previously shown to interact with the nuclear pore complex. Overexpression of CRM1 in Xenopus oocytes stimulates Rev and U snRNA export from the nucleus. Conversely, leptomycin B, a cytotoxin that is shown to bind to CRM1 protein, specifically inhibits the nuclear export of Rev and U snRNAs. In vitro, CRM1 forms a leptomycin B-sensitive complex involving cooperative binding of both RanGTP and the nuclear export signal (NES) from either the Rev or PKI proteins. We conclude that CRM1 is an export receptor for leucine-rich nuclear export signals and discuss a model for the role of RanGTP in CRM1 function and in nuclear export in general.
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          Forced thermal ratchets.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [a ]The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021
            [b ]Department of Cell Biology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H7, Canada
            Contributors
            Journal
            J Cell Biol
            The Journal of Cell Biology
            The Rockefeller University Press
            0021-9525
            1540-8140
            21 February 2000
            : 148
            : 4
            : 635-652
            2169373
            1075
            10684247
            © 2000 The Rockefeller University Press
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