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      Impact of Burn Size and Initial Serum Albumin Level on Acute Renal Failure Occurring in Major Burn

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          Abstract

          Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) is not a rare occurrence in severe burns and is an important complication leading to an increase in mortality. The severity of the burn is largely determined by the burn size, and severe burns are likely to cause enough loss of extracellular fluid and albumin from plasma volume to produce shock and hypoalbuminemia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that initial serum albumin level may be useful as an indicator of prognosis and severity of injury in burned patients. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 147 adult patients with second- and third-degree burns covering 30% or more of their body surface area were analyzed retrospectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risks of ARF and mortality associated with the larger burn size and the lower serum albumin level at admission. Results: Mean burned body surface was 60.0 ± 21.8% (range 30–100%). Twenty-eight (19.0%) out of 147 patients experienced ARF, defined as a serum creatinine ≧2 mg/dl, during the admission. The patients with ARF had larger burn size (79.5 ± 15.4 vs. 55.3 ± 20.5%, p < 0.0001) and lower serum albumin concentration at admission (1.92 ± 0.66 vs. 2.48 ± 0.82 g/dl, p < 0.0005) compared with those without ARF. All patients with ARF expired, whereas 29.4% (35/119) of the patients without ARF died. The burn size ≧65% was associated with a risk of ARF that was 9.9 times and with a risk of death that was 14.2 times as high as that for the burn size <65%. The initial serum albumin level <2.5 g/dl was associated with a risk of death that was 2.7 times as high as that for the initial serum albumin level ≧2.5 g/dl. Conclusions: When major burns are complicated by ARF, the mortality rate increases significantly. Burn size is an independent predictor of ARF occurring in major burns. Initially depressed serum albumin level is associated with an increase in mortality in the major burn patients.

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          Objective estimates of the probability of death from burn injuries.

          Over the past 20 years, there has been remarkable improvement in the chances of survival of patients treated in burn centers. A simple, accurate system for objectively estimating the probability of death would be useful in counseling patients and making medical decisions. We conducted a retrospective review of all 1665 patients with acute burn injuries admitted from 1990 to 1994 to Massachusetts General Hospital and the Shriners Burns Institute in Boston. Using logistic-regression analysis, we developed probability estimates for the prediction of mortality based on a minimal set of well-defined variables. The resulting mortality formula was used to determine whether changes in mortality have occurred since 1984, and it was tested prospectively on all 530 patients with acute burn injuries admitted in 1995 or 1996. Of the 1665 patients (mean [+/-SD] age, 21+/-20 years; mean burn size, 14+/-20 percent of body-surface area), 1598 (96 percent) lived to discharge. The mean length of stay was 21+/-29 days. Three risk factors for death were identified: age greater than 60 years, more than 40 percent of body-surface area burned, and inhalation injury. The mortality formula we developed predicts 0.3 percent, 3 percent, 33 percent, or approximately 90 percent mortality, depending on whether zero, one, two, or three risk factors are present. The results of the prospective test of the formula were similar. A large increase in the proportion of patients who chose not to be resuscitated complicated comparisons of mortality over time. The probability of mortality after burns is low and can be predicted soon after injury on the basis of simple, objective clinical criteria.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            AJN
            Am J Nephrol
            10.1159/issn.0250-8095
            American Journal of Nephrology
            S. Karger AG
            0250-8095
            1421-9670
            2003
            October 2002
            23 October 2002
            : 23
            : 1
            : 55-60
            Affiliations
            Departments of aInternal Medicine and bGeneral Surgery, Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangwon Do, South Korea
            Article
            66299 Am J Nephrol 2003;23:55–60
            10.1159/000066299
            12373081
            © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 21, Pages: 6
            Product
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/66299
            Categories
            Original Article: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

            Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

            Acute renal failure, Burn, Albumin, Burn size, Mortality

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