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      Levonadifloxacin, a Novel Broad-Spectrum Anti-MRSA Benzoquinolizine Quinolone Agent: Review of Current Evidence

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          Levonadifloxacin and its prodrug alalevonadifloxacin are novel broad-spectrum anti-MRSA agents belonging to the benzoquinolizine subclass of quinolone, formulated for intravenous and oral administration, respectively. Various in vitro and in vivo studies have established their antimicrobial spectrum against clinically significant Gram-positive, Gram-negative, atypical, and anaerobic pathogens. The potent activity of levonadifloxacin against MRSA, quinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and hetero-vancomycin-intermediate strains is an outcome of its well-differentiated mechanism of action involving preferential targeting to DNA gyrase. Potent anti-staphylococcal activity of levonadifloxacin was also observed in clinically relevant experimental conditions such as acidic pH, the intracellular environment, and biofilms, suggesting that the drug is bestowed with enabling features for the treatment of difficult-to-treat MRSA infections. Levonadifloxacin also retains clinically relevant activity against resistant respiratory pathogens such as macrolide- and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis and, in conjunction with clinically established best-in-class human epithelial lung fluid concentration, has promising potential in the management of recalcitrant respiratory infections. Attractive features, such as resistance to NorA efflux, divergent mechanism of action in S. aureus, cidality against high-inoculum cultures, and low mutant prevention concentration, are likely to confer favorable resistance-suppression features to both agents. In vivo studies have shown promising efficacy in models of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection, respiratory infections, pyelonephritis, and peritonitis at human-equivalent mouse doses. Both formulations were well tolerated in multiple phase I studies and overall showed a dose-dependent exposure. In particular, oral alalevonadifloxacin showed excellent bioavailability (~90%), almost mirroring the pharmacokinetic profile of intravenous levonadifloxacin, indicating the prodrug’s seamless absorption and efficient cleavage to release the active parent drug. Hepatic impairment studies showed that clinical doses of levonadifloxacin/alalevonadifloxacin are not required to be adjusted for various degrees of hepatic impairment. With the successful completion of phase II and phase III studies for both levonadifloxacin and alalevonadifloxacin, they represent clinically attractive therapeutic options for the treatment of infections caused by multi-drug-resistant Gram-positive organisms. Herein, we review the current evidence on therapeutically appealing attributes of levonadifloxacin and alalevonadifloxacin, which are based on a range of non-clinical in vitro and in vivo investigations and clinical studies.

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          Mechanism of Quinolone Action and Resistance

          Quinolones are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibacterials in the world and are used to treat a variety of bacterial infections in humans. Because of the wide use (and overuse) of these drugs, the number of quinolone-resistant bacterial strains has been growing steadily since the 1990s. As is the case with other antibacterial agents, the rise in quinolone resistance threatens the clinical utility of this important drug class. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome. This review describes the development of the quinolones as antibacterials, the structure and function of gyrase and topoisomerase IV, and the mechanistic basis for quinolone action against their enzyme targets. It will then discuss the following three mechanisms that decrease the sensitivity of bacterial cells to quinolones. Target-mediated resistance is the most common and clinically significant form of resistance. It is caused by specific mutations in gyrase and topoisomerase IV that weaken interactions between quinolones and these enzymes. Plasmid-mediated resistance results from extrachromosomal elements that encode proteins that disrupt quinolone–enzyme interactions, alter drug metabolism, or increase quinolone efflux. Chromosome-mediated resistance results from the underexpression of porins or the overexpression of cellular efflux pumps, both of which decrease cellular concentrations of quinolones. Finally, this review will discuss recent advancements in our understanding of how quinolones interact with gyrase and topoisomerase IV and how mutations in these enzymes cause resistance. These last findings suggest approaches to designing new drugs that display improved activity against resistant strains.
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            Antimicrobial resistance—a threat to the world’s sustainable development

            This commentary examines how specific sustainable development goals (SDGs) are affected by antimicrobial resistance and suggests how the issue can be better integrated into international policy processes. Moving beyond the importance of effective antibiotics for the treatment of acute infections and health care generally, we discuss how antimicrobial resistance also impacts on environmental, social, and economic targets in the SDG framework. The paper stresses the need for greater international collaboration and accountability distribution, and suggests steps towards a broader engagement of countries and United Nations agencies to foster global intersectoral action on antimicrobial resistance.
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              QT Prolongation and Torsade de Pointes Induced by Fluoroquinolones: Infrequent Side Effects from Commonly Used Medications

              Although very useful agents, fluoroquinolones are associated with a number of adverse events, some with considerable clinical significance. Prolongation of the QT interval, for example, is an adverse effect associated with the use of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolones prolong the QT interval by blocking voltage-gated potassium channels, especially the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current I Kr , expressed by HERG (the human ether-a-go-go-related gene). According to the available case reports and clinical studies, moxifloxacin carries the greatest risk of QT prolongation from all available quinolones in clinical practice and it should be used with caution in patients with predisposing factors for Torsades de pointes (TdP). Although gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin are associated with a lower risk of QT prolongation compared with moxifloxacin, they should also be used with caution in patients at risk for QT prolongation. Ciprofloxacin appears to be associated with the lowest risk for QT prolongation and the lowest TdP rate. The overall risk of TdP is small with the use of fluoroquinolones. Clinicians can minimize that risk by avoiding prescriptions of multiple medications associated with QT-interval prolongation, especially in high-risk patients.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                24 December 2019
                : 13
                : 4351-4365
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology, Wockhardt Research Centre , Aurangabad, India
                [2 ]Department of Toxicology, Wockhardt Research Centre , Aurangabad, India
                [3 ]Department of Safety Pharmacology, Wockhardt Research Centre , Aurangabad, India
                [4 ]Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Wockhardt Research Centre , Aurangabad, India
                [5 ]Department of Analytical Chemistry, Wockhardt Research Centre , Aurangabad, India
                [6 ]Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Wockhardt Research Centre , Aurangabad, India
                [7 ]Global Clinical Operations, Wockhardt Ltd , Mumbai, India
                [8 ]Department of Medical Affairs, Wockhardt Ltd , Mumbai, India
                [9 ]Drug Discovery Research, Wockhardt Research Centre , Aurangabad, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sachin S Bhagwat Wockhardt Research Centre , Aurangabad431006, IndiaTel +91240-669-4185 Email sbhagwat@wockhardt.com
                © 2019 Bhagwat et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, References: 52, Pages: 15


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