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      Occurrence of IMP-1 in non-baumannii Acinetobacter clinical isolates from Brazil

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          Validation of partial rpoB gene sequence analysis for the identification of clinically important and emerging Acinetobacter species.

          Bacteria belonging to the genus Acinetobacter are ubiquitous in soil and water. Only a few species, including Acinetobacter baumannii, and the unnamed Acinetobacter genomic species (gen. sp.) 3 and 13TU, which together with the soil organism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus are combined in the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii (Acb) complex, have been recognized as important nosocomial infectious agents. The ecology, epidemiology and pathology of most species are not yet well established. Lack of practical and accurate methods limits routine identification of clinical isolates and thus hampers precise identification of those of the Acb complex and other Acinetobacter species of possible clinical significance. We previously identified a 350 bp highly variable zone on the rpoB gene which appeared to be a promising target for rapid molecular identification. In the present study, we validated this method for accuracy on a collection of reference strains belonging to A. calcoaceticus (5 strains), Acinetobacter gen. sp. 3 (29 strains), A. gen. sp. 13TU (18 strains), A. baumannii (30 strains) and one strain each of A. radioresistens, A. gen. sp. 15TU, A. gen. sp. 10, A. gen. sp. 11, A. gen. sp. 'between 1 and 3' and A. gen. sp. 14TU=13BJ. This represents the largest analysis to date that compares a large number of well-identified strains of the Acb complex to assess the intra- and interspecies variation within this complex. All were correctly identified with 98.9-100 % intraspecies relatedness based on partial rpoB sequence analysis. We then applied this tool to identify 99 Acinetobacter clinical isolates from four public hospitals in Marseille, France. All isolates could easily be identified to species as they were separated into 13 species sequence types with a sequence variance of 0-2.6% from their respective type strains. Of these 99 isolates, 10 were A. haemolyticus, 52 were A. baumannii, 27 were A. gen. sp. 3, 5 were A. schindleri, 1 was A. lwoffii, and 1 was A. gen. sp. 13TU. Three were provisionally identified as A. gen. sp. 9. This is the first work to identify all specimens of a set of clinical Acinetobacter isolates at species level using rpoB sequence analysis. Our data emphasize the recognition of A. schindleri as an emerging cause of Acinetobacter-related infection and confirm that A. gen. sp. 3 is the second most commonly isolated Acinetobacter species after A. baumannii in patients.
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            Dissemination of IMP-1 metallo- beta -lactamase-producing Acinetobacter species in a Brazilian teaching hospital.

            To evaluate the emergence and dissemination of metallo- beta -lactamase (MBL)-producing Acinetobacter species. All carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter strains (1 strain per patient) collected during the period 1993-2001 were evaluated. A Brazilian tertiary care teaching hospital (Hospital Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo). Seventy-three strains of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species were recovered from the organism bank of the hospital. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by broth microdilution methods, and the production of MBL was initially assessed by phenotypic tests (MBL Etest strip and a disk approximation test). The MBL enzymes were identified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for bla(IMP), bla(VIM), and bla(SPM), followed by gene sequencing. Genetic similarity among the carbapenem-resistant strains was evaluated by automated ribotyping. Only colistin and ampicillin-sulbactam showed reasonable in vitro activity against carbapenem-resistant isolates (97% and 74% of isolates susceptible, respectively). More than half of the isolates (55%) had a positive MBL phenotypic test result and a positive polymerase chain reaction result for bla(IMP-1). The proportion of IMP-1-producing Acinetobacter isolates among carbapenem-resistant strains increased from 0% in the 1993-1997 period to 29% in 1998 and 100% in the 1999-2001 period. No carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter isolates that harbored bla(VIM) or bla(SPM) were detected. Molecular typing results revealed 20 ribogroups among carbapenem-resistant isolates. During the study period of 1994-2001, we identified 2 major ribogroups, 52-1 (MBL-negative and MBL-positive strains) and 60-7 (MBL-positive strains), that had a coefficient of similarity of 0.85 or higher. Our results indicate that IMP-1-producing strains of Acinetobacter emerged in our institution in 1998. Since then, production of this MBL was detected not only in the major ribogroups of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species but also among isolates that belonged to 17 distinct ribogroups, indicating that this important mechanism of antimicrobial resistance was disseminated among distinct clones.
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              Characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. other than Acinetobacter baumannii in South Korea.

              Although many studies have been performed on carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, only a few studies have addressed carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. other than A. baumannii (non-baumannii Acinetobacter). Amongst 287 Acinetobacter spp. isolates from patients with bacteraemia in a South Korean hospital collected between 2003 and 2010, 160 (55.7%) were non-baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and the effect of efflux pump inhibitors was examined. Antimicrobial resistance genes were identified and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was performed. OprD expression was also evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and CarO disruption was investigated by PCR. Seventeen non-baumannii Acinetobacter isolates (10.6%) were resistant to imipenem or meropenem, comprising eight Acinetobacter pittii (or Acinetobacter genomospecies 3), four Acinetobacter nosocomialis (or Acinetobacter genomospecies 13TU), two Acinetobacter genomospecies 'close to 13TU', two Acinetobacter bereziniae (or Acinetobacter genomospecies 10) and one Acinetobacter genomospecies 16. bla(IMP-1) genes were detected in seven and two carbapenem-resistant A. pittii and A. bereziniae isolates, respectively. PFGE showed that A. pittii isolates carrying bla(IMP-1) belonged to the same clone. In addition, bla(SIM-1) and bla(PER-1) genes were simultaneously identified in two A. nosocomialis isolates. In four isolates (one each of A. pittii, A. nosocomialis, Acinetobacter genomospecies 'close to 13TU' and Acinetobacter genomospecies 16), efflux pumps were implicated in the increase in carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations. No decreased expression of OprD was identified in any carbapenem-resistant non-baumannii Acinetobacter isolates, and disruption of carO was also not detected. Clonal spread of carbapenem-resistant A. pittii carrying bla(IMP-1), which contributes to a high resistance rate in this species, was identified. The bla(IMP-1) and bla(SIM-1) genes were first identified in A. bereziniae and A. nosocomialis, respectively. Since no carbapenem resistance mechanisms could be identified, further efforts to find the resistance mechanism should be made.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Medical Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                May 01 2018
                May 01 2018
                : 67
                : 5
                : 628-630
                [1 ] 1​Universidade Federal de São Paulo – UNIFESP, Laboratório Alerta, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina – EPM, São Paulo, Brazil
                [2 ] 2​Universidade Federal de São Paulo – UNIFESP, Laboratório Especial de Microbiologia clínica – LEMC, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina – EPM, São Paulo, Brazil
                [3 ] 3​Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
                © 2018


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