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      IN.PACT Amphirion paclitaxel eluting balloon versus standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for infrapopliteal revascularization of critical limb ischemia: rationale and protocol for an ongoing randomized controlled trial


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          The effectiveness and durability of endovascular revascularization therapies for chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) are challenged by the extensive burden of infrapopliteal arterial disease and lesion-related characteristics (e.g., severe calcification, chronic total occlusions), which frequently result in poor clinical outcomes. While infrapopliteal vessel patency directly affects pain relief and wound healing, sustained patency and extravascular care both contribute to the ultimate “patient-centric” outcomes of functional limb preservation, mobility and quality of life (QoL).


          IN.PACT DEEP is a 2:1 randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy and safety of infrapopliteal arterial revascularization between the IN.PACT Amphirion™ paclitaxel drug-eluting balloon (IA-DEB) and standard balloon angioplasty (PTA) in patients with Rutherford Class 4-5-6 CLI.


          This multicenter trial has enrolled 358 patients at 13 European centers with independent angiographic core lab adjudication of the primary efficacy endpoint of target lesion late luminal loss (LLL) and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) in major amputation-free surviving patients through 12-months. An independent wound core lab will evaluate all ischemic wounds to assess the extent of healing and time to healing at 1, 6, and 12 months. A QoL questionnaire including a pain scale will assess changes from baseline scores through 12 months. A Clinical Events Committee and Data Safety Monitoring Board will adjudicate the composite primary safety endpoints of all-cause death, major amputation, and clinically driven TLR at 6 months and other trial endpoints and supervise patient safety throughout the study. All patients will be followed for 5 years. A literature review is presented of the current status of endovascular treatment of CLI with drug-eluting balloon and standard PTA. The rationale and design of the IN.PACT DEEP Trial are discussed. IN.PACT DEEP is a milestone, prospective, randomized, robust, independent core lab-adjudicated CLI trial that will evaluate the role of a new infrapopliteal revascularization technology, the IA-DEB, compared to PTA. It will assess the overall impact on infrapopliteal artery patency, limb salvage, wound healing, pain control, QoL, and patient mobility. The 1-year results of the adjudicated co-primary and secondary endpoints will be available in 2014.

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          Most cited references31

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          Bypass versus angioplasty in severe ischaemia of the leg (BASIL): multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

          The treatment of rest pain, ulceration, and gangrene of the leg (severe limb ischaemia) remains controversial. We instigated the BASIL trial to compare the outcome of bypass surgery and balloon angioplasty in such patients. We randomly assigned 452 patients, who presented to 27 UK hospitals with severe limb ischaemia due to infra-inguinal disease, to receive a surgery-first (n=228) or an angioplasty-first (n=224) strategy. The primary endpoint was amputation (of trial leg) free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. The BASIL trial is registered with the National Research Register (NRR) and as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN45398889. The trial ran for 5.5 years, and follow-up finished when patients reached an endpoint (amputation of trial leg above the ankle or death). Seven individuals were lost to follow-up after randomisation (three assigned angioplasty, two surgery); of these, three were lost (one angioplasty, two surgery) during the first year of follow-up. 195 (86%) of 228 patients assigned to bypass surgery and 216 (96%) of 224 to balloon angioplasty underwent an attempt at their allocated intervention at a median (IQR) of 6 (3-16) and 6 (2-20) days after randomisation, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 248 (55%) patients were alive without amputation (of trial leg), 38 (8%) alive with amputation, 36 (8%) dead after amputation, and 130 (29%) dead without amputation. After 6 months, the two strategies did not differ significantly in amputation-free survival (48 vs 60 patients; unadjusted hazard ratio 1.07, 95% CI 0.72-1.6; adjusted hazard ratio 0.73, 0.49-1.07). We saw no difference in health-related quality of life between the two strategies, but for the first year the hospital costs associated with a surgery-first strategy were about one third higher than those with an angioplasty-first strategy. In patients presenting with severe limb ischaemia due to infra-inguinal disease and who are suitable for surgery and angioplasty, a bypass-surgery-first and a balloon-angioplasty-first strategy are associated with broadly similar outcomes in terms of amputation-free survival, and in the short-term, surgery is more expensive than angioplasty.
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            Local delivery of paclitaxel to inhibit restenosis during angioplasty of the leg.

            Drug-eluting stents reduce restenosis in coronary arteries, but clinical trials have failed to prove their efficacy in peripheral arteries. We investigated the use of paclitaxel-coated angioplasty balloons and paclitaxel dissolved in the angiographic contrast medium during angioplasty of the leg. In a small, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 154 patients with stenosis or occlusion of a femoropopliteal artery to treatment with standard balloon catheters coated with paclitaxel, uncoated balloons with paclitaxel dissolved in the contrast medium, or uncoated balloons without paclitaxel (control). The primary end point was late lumen loss at 6 months. The mean (+/-SD) age of the patients was 68+/-8 years, 24% were smokers, and 49% had diabetes. Twenty-seven percent of the lesions were total occlusions, and 36% were restenotic lesions. The mean lesion length was 7.4+/-6.5 cm. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the groups. There were no adverse events attributable to the paclitaxel-coated balloons. At 6 months, the mean late lumen loss was 1.7+/-1.8 mm in the control group, as compared with 0.4+/-1.2 mm (P<0.001) in the group treated with paclitaxel-coated balloons and 2.2+/-1.6 mm (P=0.11) in the group treated with paclitaxel in the contrast medium. The rate of revascularization of target lesions at 6 months was 20 of 54 (37%) in the control group, 2 of 48 (4%) in the group treated with paclitaxel-coated balloons (P<0.001 vs. control), and 15 of 52 (29%) in the group treated with paclitaxel in the contrast medium (P=0.41 vs. control); at 24 months, the rates increased to 28 of 54 (52%), 7 of 48 (15%), and 21 of 52 (40%), respectively. Use of paclitaxel-coated angioplasty balloons during percutaneous treatment of femoropopliteal disease is associated with significant reductions in late lumen loss and target-lesion revascularization. No significant benefit is seen with the use of a paclitaxel-containing contrast medium. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00156624 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Inhibition of restenosis in femoropopliteal arteries: paclitaxel-coated versus uncoated balloon: femoral paclitaxel randomized pilot trial.

              The success of percutaneous intervention in peripheral arterial disease is limited by restenosis. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate a novel method of local drug delivery. This randomized multicenter study with blinded reading enrolled 87 patients in Rutherford class 1 to 4 with occlusion or hemodynamically relevant stenosis, restenosis, or in-stent restenosis of femoropopliteal arteries. Treatment was performed by either conventional uncoated or paclitaxel-coated balloon catheters. The primary end point was late lumen loss at 6 months. Secondary end points included restenosis rate, ankle brachial index, Rutherford class, target lesion revascularization, and tolerance up to >18 months. Before intervention, there were no significant differences in lesion characteristics such as reference diameter (5.3+/-1.1 versus 5.2+/-1.0 mm), degree of stenosis (84+/-11% versus 84+/-16%), proportion of restenotic lesions (36% versus 33%), and mean lesion length (5.7 cm [0.8 to 22.6 cm] versus 6.1 cm [0.9 to 19.3 cm]) between treatment groups. The 6-month follow-up angiography performed in 31 of 45 and 34 of 42 patients showed less late lumen loss in the coated balloon group (0.5+/-1.1 versus 1.0+/-1.1 mm; P=0.031). The number of target lesion revascularizations was lower in the paclitaxel-coated balloon group than in control subjects (3 of 45 versus 14 of 42 patients; P=0.002). Improvement in Rutherford class was greater in the coated balloon group (P=0.045), whereas the improvement in ankle brachial index was not different. The difference in target lesion revascularizations between treatment groups was maintained up to >18 months. No adverse events were assessed as related to balloon coating. In this pilot trial, paclitaxel balloon coating caused no obvious adverse events and reduced restenosis in patients undergoing angioplasty of femoropopliteal arteries.

                Author and article information

                BioMed Central
                19 February 2014
                : 15
                : 63
                [1 ]Department of Angiology, Universitäts Herzzentrum Freiburg Bad Krozingen, Bad Krozingen, Germany
                [2 ]Swiss Cardiovascular Center, Division of Angiology, University Hospital, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland
                [3 ]Center of Vascular Medicine, Park Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
                [4 ]Department of Angiology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria
                [5 ]Department of Vascular Surgery, A.Z. Sint-Blasius, Dendermonde, Belgium
                [6 ]Invasive Cardioangiology GVM Care and Research, Palermo, Italy
                [7 ]Department of Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden, Belgium
                [8 ]Department of Vascular Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
                [9 ]Department of Medical Affairs, Endovascular Therapies, Medtronic Cardiovascular, Santa Rosa CA, USA
                Author notes
                on behalf of the IN.PACT DEEP Trial Investigators
                Copyright © 2014 Zeller et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

                : 16 July 2013
                : 28 January 2014
                Study Protocol

                infrapopliteal,critical limb ischemia,peripheral vascular disease,drug-eluting balloon


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