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      Cigarette smoke exposure promotes differentiation of CD4 + T cells toward Th17 cells by CD40–CD40L costimulatory pathway in mice

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          This study aimed to investigate the impact of cigarette smoke exposure upon CD40–CD40L ligation between bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs)and CD4 +T cells, and to examine the effects of cigarette smoke exposure upon differentiation of CD4 +T cells toward Th17 cells through blockade of CD40-CD40L pathway in mice.


          The study was processed in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, Th17 cells, CD40, interleukin (IL)-17A, and IL-27 in the lung tissues were quantified and compared between mice with and without cigarette smoke exposure. In vitro, Th17 cells, IL-17A, and IL-27 yielded by multiple cell cultivations in which BMDCs from mice with or without cigarette smoke exposure were fostered with CD4 + T cells from healthy mice spleens in the presence of antagonistic CD40 antibody and/or cigarette smoke extract (CSE) were quantified and compared. The flow cytometry was used to detect expressions of Th17 cells and CD40, and the liquid chip was used to detect levels of IL-17A and IL-27.


          Both in vivo exposed to cigarette smoke and in vitro to CSE, CD40 expressions noticeably escalated on the surfaces of BMDCs. The presence of Th17 cells, IL-17A, and IL-27 in the lung tissues prominently increased in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. The in vitro culture of CD4 + T cells and BMDCs significantly enhanced the differentiation of CD4 + T cells toward Th17 cells and secretions of IL-17A and IL-27 in the case that BMDCs were produced from mice exposed to cigarette smoke or the culture occurred in the presence of CSE. Usage of antagonistic CD40 antibody evidently reduced the number of Th17 cells, IL-17A, and IL-27 that increased due to cigarette smoke exposure.


          The CD40–CD40L ligation is associated with the quantities of Th17 cells and relevant cytokines in the context of cigarette smoke exposure. Reducing the number of Th17 cells via the usage of antagonistic CD40 antibody can be an inspiration for pursuing a novel therapeutic target for immune inflammation in COPD.

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          Most cited references 32

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          A distinct lineage of CD4 T cells regulates tissue inflammation by producing interleukin 17.

          Interleukin 17 (IL-17) has been linked to autoimmune diseases, although its regulation and function have remained unclear. Here we have evaluated in vitro and in vivo the requirements for the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into effector T helper cells that produce IL-17. This process required the costimulatory molecules CD28 and ICOS but was independent of the cytokines and transcription factors required for T helper type 1 or type 2 differentiation. Furthermore, both IL-4 and interferon-gamma negatively regulated T helper cell production of IL-17 in the effector phase. In vivo, antibody to IL-17 inhibited chemokine expression in the brain during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas overexpression of IL-17 in lung epithelium caused chemokine production and leukocyte infiltration. Thus, IL-17 expression characterizes a unique T helper lineage that regulates tissue inflammation.
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            Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in immunity.

            Human and mouse plasmacytoid dendritic cells have been shown to correspond to a specialized cell population that produces large amounts of type I interferons in response to viruses, the so-called natural interferon-producing cells. As a result, intensive investigation is now focused on the potential functions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both innate and adaptive immunity. Here we review recent progress on the characterization of plasmacytoid dendritic cell origin, development, migration and function in immunity and tolerance, as well as their effect on human diseases.
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              Requirement of Interleukin 17 Receptor Signaling for Lung Cxc Chemokine and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Expression, Neutrophil Recruitment, and Host Defense

              Bacterial pneumonia is an increasing complication of HIV infection and inversely correlates with the CD4+ lymphocyte count. Interleukin (IL)-17 is a cytokine produced principally by CD4+ T cells, which induces granulopoiesis via granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) production and induces CXC chemokines. We hypothesized that IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) signaling is critical for G-CSF and CXC chemokine production and lung host defenses. To test this, we used a model of Klebsiella pneumoniae lung infection in mice genetically deficient in IL-17R or in mice overexpressing a soluble IL-17R. IL-17R–deficient mice were exquisitely sensitive to intranasal K. pneumoniae with 100% mortality after 48 h compared with only 40% mortality in controls. IL-17R knockout (KO) mice displayed a significant delay in neutrophil recruitment into the alveolar space, and had greater dissemination of K. pneumoniae compared with control mice. This defect was associated with a significant reduction in steady-state levels of G-CSF and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 mRNA and protein in the lung in response to the K. pneumoniae challenge in IL-17R KO mice. Thus, IL-17R signaling is critical for optimal production of G-CSF and MIP-2 and local control of pulmonary K. pneumoniae infection. These data support impaired IL-17R signaling as a potential mechanism by which deficiency of CD4 lymphocytes predisposes to bacterial pneumonia.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                21 March 2018
                : 13
                : 959-968
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University
                [2 ]Division of General Practice, General Practice School of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xiaoning Zhong, Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, No 6, Shuangyong Road, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 771 535 1176, Email xnzhong101@
                © 2018 Liang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                cigarette smoke extract, bmdc, cd4+il-17+ t cell, cd40–cd40l pathway, il-17a, il-27


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