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      Hyponatremia in Acute-Phase Response Syndrome Patients in General Surgical Wards

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          Background: In surgical patients, hypoalbuminemia may occur as a component of acute-phase response (APR) syndrome, which we hypothesized could decrease serum sodium levels. Aim: To compare the frequency of hyponatremia in adult surgical inpatients with or without APR syndrome. Methods: All the simultaneous plasma sodium and albumin results (n = 168), obtained from adults in surgical wards and corresponding to a 6-month period, were searched in the hospital mainframe. Other relevant laboratory and clinical data were also registered. APR was ascertained by the presence of major physical trauma, surgery or infection, plus hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin <3.5 g/dl) and neutrophil left shift (≥7% of band count) associated with peripheral leukopenia (white blood cells <4,000/mm<sup>3</sup>) or leukocytosis (WBC >9,000/mm<sup>3</sup>). Hyponatremia was defined by serum sodium concentration <135 mEq/l. Results: APR-positive patients (n = 113) had lower blood hemoglobin (10.92 ± 2.18 vs. 13.53 ± 2.30 g/dl), and serum albumin levels (median, range: 2.8, 1.9–3.4 vs. 3.7, 3.5–4.2 g/dl) than APR-negative (n = 55) ones, the same occurring in relation to antibiotics (54.8 vs. 10.9%) and intravenous 5% dextrose in water (55.7 vs. 20.0%) or isotonic saline (46.0 vs. 9.1%) infusion. The hyponatremia frequency was higher among APR-positive patients (31.0 vs. 10.9%). Conclusion: The higher percentage of hyponatremia among APR-positive patients could be attributed to decreased serum albumin levels associated with APR.

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          Postoperative hyponatremia. A prospective study.

          In the present study, we found that at least 4.4% of 1,088 prospectively studied patients developed postoperative hyponatremia (plasma sodium concentration less than 130 mEq/L). Most patients (42%) were normovolemic. Edematous states (21%), hyperglycemia (21%), volume depletion (8%), and renal failure (8%), however, were also common settings of postoperative hyponatremia. Plasma arginine vasopressin was present in all patients in whom it was measured and 94% of the patients were receiving hypotonic fluid at the time of development of hyponatremia. Hyponatremia was not associated with significant neurologic deterioration in the 48 postoperative patients in the present study. In eight patients, however, the positive water balance that resulted in hyponatremia was associated with development of pulmonary vascular congestion. We conclude that hyponatremia commonly occurs following all types of surgical procedures and is due to hypotonic fluid administration in the presence of nonosmotic secretion of arginine vasopressin.
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            Postoperative cerebral oedema after transcervical endometrial resection and uterine irrigation with 1.5% glycine.

            Absorption of irrigating solution during transcervical resection of endometrium can cause dilutional hyponatraemia, nausea, and cerebral oedema. We studied 6 patients who absorbed more than 1500 mL of 1.5% glycine, and 14 patients who absorbed less. Cerebral oedema was diagnosed by blinded, paired comparison of computed tomography (CT) scans 3-6 hours and 3-6 days after operation. The absorbed volume of irrigating glycine solution was correlated with peroperative decrease in serum sodium. 10 patients who absorbed 500 mL of glycine or more had postoperative nausea, with cerebral oedema suspected in 9. None of the 10 patients who absorbed less than 500 mL had nausea; changes on CT scan suggestive of cerebral odema were found in 1. 8 patients who absorbed 1000 mL or more had a decrease in serum sodium of 10 mmol/L or more, nausea, and cerebral oedema on CT scan. Cerebral oedema may contribute to the development of postoperative nausea in patients undergoing transcervical surgery who absorb more than 500 mL of 1.5% glycine irrigating solution.
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              Hypophosphatemia in Acute-Phase Response Syndrome Patients


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                February 2000
                13 January 2000
                : 20
                : 1
                : 37-41
                Nutrition Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School of Uberaba, Brazil
                13553 Am J Nephrol 2000;20:37–41
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 22, Pages: 5
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