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      High-Resolution Ultrastructural Comparison of Renal Glomerular and Tubular Basement Membranes

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Glomerular basement membranes (GBM) and tubular basement membranes (TBM) consist of a fine meshwork composed mainly of type IV collagen. Each segment of tubules has specialized physiologic functions, and thus we investigated the ultrastructure of various basement membranes in rat kidneys. Methods: Since purifying basement membranes from different tubule segments is technically challenging, we employed tissue negative staining rather than conventional negative staining to compare the ultrastructures of proximal and distal TBM and GBM in normal rats. We also assessed the distribution of extracellular matrix components including type IV collagen, laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and fibronectin in the basement membranes by immunohistochemistry. Results: TBM and GBM of normal rats showed a fine meshwork structure consisting of fibrils forming small round to oval pores. Short- and long-pore diameters in proximal tubules were 3.3 ± 0.5 and 3.9 ± 0.6 nm, respectively, and in distal tubules 3.5 ± 0.7 and 4.3 ± 0.8 nm, respectively. For GBM the respective diameters were 2.5 ± 0.5 and 3.0 ± 0.5 nm. Immunohistochemical analysis showed no significant difference in distribution of extracellular matrix components between proximal and distal TBM. However, immunofluorescence scores of α1 chain of type IV collagen, fibronectin, and laminin were higher in the TBM than in the GBM. On the other hand, heparan sulfate proteoglycan was higher in the GBM. Conclusion: Ultrastructural differences in renal basement membranes may be related to differences in physiologic function in each segment.

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          Accumulation of N σ -(Carboxy-methyl)lysine and Changes inGlomerular Extracellular MatrixComponents in Otsuka Long-EvansTokushima Fatty Rat:A Model of Spontaneous NIDDM

          Increases in extracellular matrix (ECM) and changes in its components have been documented in the glomeruli of diabetic nephropathy. Advanced glycation end products formed by glycoxidation have been shown to induce the synthesis of ECM components and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), suggesting that advanced glycation end products may be involved in the etiology of imbalance of ECM components in diabetic glomerulosclerosis. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus which progresses to diabetic glomerulosclerosis. N Ε -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) is known to be formed by glycoxidation. To clarify the involvement of glycoxidation in diabetic nephropathy, we examined the localization of CML, ECM components, and TGF-β 1 in the glomeruli of OLETF rats. The amounts of α 3 (IV) collagen, type VI collagen, and fibronectin were significantly increased in the glomeruli of OLETF rats, whereas the heparan sulfate proteoglycan levels were decreased. After 6 months of age, CML levels were significantly increased in the mesangial area of the glomeruli in these animals. The overexpression of TGF-β 1 preceded the increase in glomerular ECM components. The present study demonstrated that the accumulation of CML precedes the changes of glomerular ECM components in the glomeruli during the course of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting that glycoxidation may be one of the major causes of diabetic glomerulosclerosis.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            AJN
            Am J Nephrol
            10.1159/issn.0250-8095
            American Journal of Nephrology
            S. Karger AG
            0250-8095
            1421-9670
            1999
            December 1999
            26 November 1999
            : 19
            : 6
            : 686-693
            Affiliations
            aDepartment of Medicine III and bCentral Research Laboratory, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, Japan
            Article
            13543 Am J Nephrol 1999;19:686–693
            10.1159/000013543
            10592365
            © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 5, References: 36, Pages: 8
            Product
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13543
            Categories
            Laboratory Investigation

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