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      Hypophosphatemia and Calcium Nephrolithiasis

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          Our knowledge of phosphate balance under physiological and pathological situations has increased substantially during the last decade thanks to the molecular identification of three dissimilar families of sodium-phosphate cotransport systems, two of them almost exclusively expressed in epithelia whereas the third one has a ubiquitous expression. Intracellular proteins such as NHERF1 (sodium-proton exchanger regulatory factor 1) can interact with phosphate transporters through PDZ domains thus regulating the expression of the transporters at the membrane. Moreover, newly acknowledged paracrine/endocrine peptides, such as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), also affect the activity of phosphate transporters. Renal phosphate leak, related to invalidation (in the mouse) or to mutations (in humans) of the renal phosphate transporter NPT2a, leads to hypophosphatemia on the one hand, and to nephrolithiasis or bone demineralization on the other hand. Similar features are observed during invalidation of NHERF or in case of overproduction of FGF23. These observations highlight the importance of phosphate homeostasis in common diseases such as renal stones or bone loss.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Targeted inactivation of Npt2 in mice leads to severe renal phosphate wasting, hypercalciuria, and skeletal abnormalities.

          Npt2 encodes a renal-specific, brush-border membrane Na+-phosphate (Pi) cotransporter that is expressed in the proximal tubule where the bulk of filtered Pi is reabsorbed. Mice deficient in the Npt2 gene were generated by targeted mutagenesis to define the role of Npt2 in the overall maintenance of Pi homeostasis, determine its impact on skeletal development, and clarify its relationship to autosomal disorders of renal Pi reabsorption in humans. Homozygous mutants (Npt2(-/-)) exhibit increased urinary Pi excretion, hypophosphatemia, an appropriate elevation in the serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with attendant hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and decreased serum parathyroid hormone levels, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. These biochemical features are typical of patients with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH), a Mendelian disorder of renal Pi reabsorption. However, unlike HHRH patients, Npt2(-/-) mice do not have rickets or osteomalacia. At weaning, Npt2(-/-) mice have poorly developed trabecular bone and retarded secondary ossification, but, with increasing age, there is a dramatic reversal and eventual overcompensation of the skeletal phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that Npt2 is a major regulator of Pi homeostasis and necessary for normal skeletal development.
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            Cell-surface receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus and amphotropic murine retrovirus are inducible sodium-dependent phosphate symporters.

            Cell surface receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus (Glvr-1) and murine amphotropic retrovirus (Ram-1) are distinct but related proteins having multiple membrane-spanning regions. Distant homology with a putative phosphate permease of Neurospora crassa suggested that these receptors might serve transport functions. By expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in mammalian cells, we have identified Glvr-1 and Ram-1 as sodium-dependent phosphate symporters. Two-electrode voltage-clamp analysis indicates net cation influx, suggesting that phosphate is transported with excess sodium ions. Phosphate uptake was reduced by > 50% in mouse fibroblasts expressing amphotropic envelope glycoprotein, which binds to Ram-1, indicating that Ram-1 is a major phosphate transporter in these cells. RNA analysis shows wide but distinct tissue distributions, with Glvr-1 expression being highest in bone marrow and Ram-1 in heart. Overexpression of Ram-1 severely repressed Glvr-1 synthesis in fibroblasts, suggesting that transporter expression may be controlled by net phosphate accumulation. Accordingly, depletion of extracellular phosphate increased Ram-1 and Glvr-1 expression 3- to 5-fold. These results suggest simple methods to modulate retroviral receptor expression, with possible applications to human gene therapy.
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              Characterization of a murine type II sodium-phosphate cotransporter expressed in mammalian small intestine.

              An isoform of the mammalian renal type II Na/Pi-cotransporter is described. Homology of this isoform to described mammalian and nonmammalian type II cotransporters is between 57 and 75%. Based on major diversities at the C terminus, the new isoform is designed as type IIb Na/Pi-cotransporter. Na/Pi-cotransport mediated by the type IIb cotransporter was studied in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. The results indicate that type IIb Na/Pi-cotransport is electrogenic and in contrast to the renal type II isoform of opposite pH dependence. Expression of type IIb mRNA was detected in various tissues, including small intestine. The type IIb protein was detected as a 108-kDa protein by Western blots using isolated small intestinal brush border membranes and by immunohistochemistry was localized at the luminal membrane of mouse enterocytes. Expression of the type IIb protein in the brush borders of enterocytes and transport characteristics suggest that the described type IIb Na/Pi-cotransporter represents a candidate for small intestinal apical Na/Pi-cotransport.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                October 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 98
                : 2
                : e50-e54
                aDepartment of Physiology and Inserm U 426, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat, Université Denis Diderot, Paris, and bService de Physiologie – Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Bichat, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France
                80256 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2004;98:e50–e54
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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