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      Modification of Nursing Education for Upgrading Nurses’ Participation: A Thematic Analysis

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          The product of the educational nursing programs in Iran is training nurses who less have professional apprehension and commitment for participating in professional decisions. Whereas nurses especially those in high academic levels are expected to more involve in professional issues.


          The aim of this study was to explore Iranian nurse leaders’ experiences of making educational nursing policy with emphasizes on enhancement of nurses’ participation in professional decisions.


          We used a qualitative design with thematic analysis approach for data gathering and data analysis. Using purposive sampling we selected 17 experienced nurses in education and making educational nursing policies. Data gathered by open deep semi-structured face to face interviews. We followed six steps of Braun and Clarke for data analysis.


          In order to enhance nurses’ participation in professional decisions they need to be well educated and trained to participate in community and meet community needs. The three main themes that evolved from analysis included opportunities available for training undergraduate students, challenges for PhD nurses and general deficiencies in nursing education. The second theme includes three sub-themes; namely, the PhD curriculum, PhD nurses’ attitudes and PhD nurses’ performance.


          We need for revising and directing nursing education toward service learning, community based need programs such as diabetes and driving accidents and also totally application of present educational opportunities. The specialization of nursing and the establishment of specialized nursing associations, the emphasis on teaching the science of care and reinforcing the sense of appreciation of pioneers of nursing in Iran are among the directions offered in the present study

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          A model for empowerment of nursing in Iran

          Background While the Iranian nursing profession tries to reach to its full capacity for participating in the maintenance of public health, its desire to develop is strongly influenced by cultural, economic, and religious factors. The concept of empowerment is frequently used in nursing and the health services, particularly in relation to the quality of care, since the mission of nursing is to provide safe and quality nursing care thereby enabling patients to achieve their maximum level of wellness. When considering the importance of nursing services in any health system, the 54th World Health Assembly recommended that programs be designed to strengthen and promote the nursing profession. Since empowerment is crucial to the role of nurses, a qualitative study was conducted and aimed at designing a model for empowering nurses in Iran. Methods A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing the participants' experiences, their perceptions and the strategies affecting empowerment. Data collection was done through Semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Forty-four participants were interviewed and 12 sessions of observation were carried out. Results Three main categories emerged from the data collected; these are "personal empowerment", "collective empowerment", and "the culture and structure of the organization." From the participants' perspective, empowerment is a dynamic process that results from mutual interaction between personal and collective traits of nurses as well as the culture and the structure of the organization. Impediments, such as power dynamics within the health care system hinder nurses from demonstrating that they possess the essential ingredients of empowerment. Conclusion A model was designed for empowering the nursing profession in Iran. Implementing this model will not only define nursing roles, identify territories in the national healthcare system, but it will restructure nursing systems, sub-systems, and services. Currently no such model exists; therefore, restructuring of the nursing system, including its services, education and research subsystems is recommended.
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            Iranian nurses' perceptions of theoretical knowledge transfer into clinical practice: a grounded theory approach.

            Since nursing education was transferred to universities in Iran, the public and health administrators have criticized Iranian nurses because of poor-quality patient care. It seems that nurses are not able to transfer the taught theoretical knowledge in academia into practice. This paper attempts to provide an insider view of why the taught theoretical knowledge in academia might be difficult to enact in the clinical setting. Using the grounded theory approach, individual in-depth interviews and participant observation were undertaken with a purposive and theoretical sample of 26 participants in Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The findings showed that, in spite of increased academic input into nursing education, clinical behaviors in both the education and practice settings were perceived as "traditional routine-based".
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              Ambiguity in knowledge transfer: The role of theory-practice gap

              BACKGROUND: In spite of much literature written about the theory-practice gap in the international nursing journals, there is evidence that indicates this subject has not been probed comprehensively since nursing education was transferred to universities in Iran. In the recent years, the public and the government have criticized Iranian nurses because of poor quality of patient care. Although this subject has been lamented by some researchers, there is no comprehensive work on how this gap resulted. In the process of a larger study on “nursing knowledge translation to practice”, of one PhD thesis, this process was explored. METHODS: Using grounded theory analysis, indepth interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of 29 nurses, with different levels of experience, from the school of nursing in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2006 from January to August. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. RESULTS: Three main themes emerging from this study included clinical behavior structure, paradoxical knowledge and practice, and divergent nursing organization. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that nursing education with some praxis and paradoxes in the realm of nursing knowledge and practice, along with divergent organizational structure have decreased nurses’ ability in applying their professional knowledge and skills in order to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Moreover, in spite of increased academic input into nursing education, clinical behaviors of both education and practice settings was perceived as “traditional routine-based”.

                Author and article information

                Glob J Health Sci
                Glob J Health Sci
                Global Journal of Health Science
                Canadian Center of Science and Education (Canada )
                July 2015
                31 December 2014
                : 7
                : 4
                : 161-172
                [1 ]School of Nursing & Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
                [2 ]School of Nursing & Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mohammad Ali Cheraghi, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Department of Critical Care Nursing, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Toheed Square, IR Iran. Tel: 98-21-6693-3600. E-mail: mcheraghi@
                Copyright: © Canadian Center of Science and Education

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (



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