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      2-acetylphenol analogs as potent reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors


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          Based on a previous report that substituted 2-acetylphenols may be promising leads for the design of novel monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, a series of C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs (15) and related compounds (two) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of human MAO-A and MAO-B. Generally, the study compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against both MAO-A and MAO-B, with selectivity for the B isoform. Among the compounds evaluated, seven compounds exhibited IC 50 values <0.01 µM for MAO-B inhibition, with the most selective compound being 17,000-fold selective for MAO-B over the MAO-A isoform. Analyses of the structure–activity relationships for MAO inhibition show that substitution on the C5 position of the 2-acetylphenol moiety is a requirement for MAO-B inhibition, and the benzyloxy substituent is particularly favorable in this regard. This study concludes that C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs are potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors, appropriate for the design of therapies for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.

          Most cited references32

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          Monoamine oxidase: isoforms and inhibitors in Parkinson's disease and depressive illness.

          A few years after the foundation of the British Pharmacological Society, monoamine oxidase (MAO) was recognized as an enzyme of crucial interest to pharmacologists because it catalyzed the major inactivation pathway for the catecholamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine (and, later, 5-hydroxytryptamine, as well). Within the next decade, the therapeutic value of inhibitors of MAO in the treatment of depressive illness was established. Although this first clinical use exposed serious side effects, pharmacological interest in, and investigation of, MAO continued, resulting in the characterization of two isoforms, MAO-A and -B, and isoform-selective inhibitors. Selective inhibitors of MAO-B have found a therapeutic role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and further developments have provided reversible inhibitors of MAO-A, which offer antidepressant activity without the serious side effects of the earlier inhibitors. Clinical observation and subsequent pharmacological analysis have also generated the concept of neuroprotection, reflecting the possibility of slowing, halting and maybe reversing, neurodegeneration in Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Increased levels of oxidative stress in the brain may be critical for the initiation and progress of neurodegeneration and selective inhibition of brain MAO could contribute importantly to lowering such stress. There are complex interactions between free iron levels in brain and MAO, which may have practical outcomes for depressive disorders. These aspects of MAO and its inhibition and some indication of how this important area of pharmacology and therapeutics might develop in the future are summarized in this review.
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            Impact of sustained deprenyl (selegiline) in levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease: a randomized placebo-controlled extension of the deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of parkinsonism trial.

            Deprenyl (selegiline) delays the need for levodopa therapy in patients with early Parkinson's disease, but the long-term benefits of this treatment remain unclear. During 1987 to 1988, 800 patients with early Parkinson's disease were randomized in the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism trial to receive deprenyl, tocopherol, combined treatments, or a placebo and were then placed on active deprenyl (10mg/day). A second, independent randomization was carried out in early 1993 for 368 subjects who by that time had required levodopa and who had consented to continuing the deprenyl treatment (D subjects) or changing to a matching placebo (P subjects) under double-blind conditions. The first development of wearing off, dyskinesias, or on-off motor fluctuations was the prespecified primary outcome measure. During the average 2-year follow-up, there were no differences between the treatment groups with respect to the primary outcome measure (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.63, 1.19; p = 0.38), withdrawal from the study, death, or adverse events. Although 34% of D subjects developed dyskinesias and only 19% of P subjects did (p = 0.006), only 16% of D subjects developed freezing of gait but 29% of P subjects did (p = 0.0003). Decline in motor performance was less in D subjects than P subjects. Levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease patients who had been treated with deprenyl for up to 7 years, compared with patients who were changed to a placebo after about 5 years, experienced slower motor decline and were more likely to develop dyskinesias but less likely to develop freezing of gait.
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              Moclobemide: therapeutic use and clinical studies.

              Udo Bonnet (2003)
              Moclobemide is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine-oxidase-A (RIMA) and has been extensively evaluated in the treatment of a wide spectrum of depressive disorders and less extensively studied in anxiety disorders. Nearly all meta-analyses and most comparative studies indicated that in the acute management of depression this drug is more efficacious than placebo and as efficacious as tricyclic (or some heterocyclic) antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). There is a growing evidence that moclobemide is not inferior to other antidepressants in the treatment of subtypes of depression, such as dysthymia, endogenous (unipolar and bipolar), reactive, atypical, agitated, and retarded depression as with other antidepressants limited evidence suggests that moclobemide has consistent long-term efficacy. However, more controlled studies addressing this issue are needed. For patients with bipolar depression the risk of developing mania seems to be not higher with moclobemide than with other antidepressants. The effective therapeutic dose range for moclobemide in most acute phase trials was 300 to 600 mg, divided in 2 to 3 doses. While one controlled trial and one long-term open-label study found moclobemide to be efficacious in social phobia, three controlled trials subsequently revealed either no effect or less robust effects with the tendency of higher doses (600 - 900 mg/d) to be more efficacious. Two comparative trials demonstrated moclobemide to be as efficacious as fluoxetine or clomipramine in patients suffering from panic disorder. Placebo-controlled trials in this indication are, however, still lacking. A relationship between the plasma concentration of moclobemide and its therapeutic efficacy is not apparent but a positive correlation with adverse events has been found. Dizziness, nausea and insomnia occurred more frequently on moclobemide than on placebo. Due to negligible anticholinergic and antihistaminic actions, moclobemide has been better tolerated than tri- or heterocyclic antidepressants. Gastrointestinal side effects and, especially, sexual dysfunction were much less frequent with moclobemide than with SSRIs. Unlike irreversible MAO-inhibitors, moclobemide has a negligible propensity to induce hypertensive crisis after ingestion of tyramine-rich food ("cheese-reaction"). Therefore, dietary restrictions are not as strict. However, with moclobemide doses above 900 mg/d the risk of interaction with ingested tyramine might become clinically relevant. After multiple dosing the oral bioavailability of moclobemide reaches almost 100%. At therapeutic doses, moclobemide lacks significant negative effects on psychomotor performance, cognitive function or cardiovascular system. Due to the relative freedom from these side effects, moclobemide is particularly attractive in the treatment of elderly patients. Moclobemide is a substrate of CYP2C19. Although it acts as an inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6, relatively few clinically important drug interactions involving moclobemide have been reported. It is relatively safe even in overdose. The drug has a short plasma elimination half-life that allows switching to an alternative agent within 24 h. Since it is well tolerated, therapeutic doses can often be reached rapidly upon onset of treatment. Steady-state plasma levels are reached approximately at one week following dose adjustment. Patients with renal dysfunction require no dose reduction in contrast to patients with severe hepatic impairment. Cases of refractory depression might improve with a combination of moclobemide with other antidepressants, such as clomipramine or a SSRI. Since this combination has rarely been associated with a potentially lethal serotonin syndrome, it requires lower entry doses, a slower dose titration and a more careful monitoring of patients. Combination therapy with moclobemide and other serotonergic agents, or opioids, should be undertaken with caution, although no serious adverse events have been published with therapeutic doses of moclobemide to date. On the basis of animal data the combined use of moclobemide with pethidine or dextropropoxyphene should be avoided. There is no evidence that moclobemide would increase body weight or produce seizures. Some preclinical data suggest that moclobemide may have anticonvulsant property.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                15 July 2015
                : 9
                : 3635-3644
                [1 ]Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lesetja J Legoabe, Centre of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa, Tel +27 18 299 2182, Fax +27 18 299 4243, Email lesetja.legoabe@ 123456nwu.ac.za
                © 2015 Legoabe et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                monoamine oxidase,mao,inhibition,2-acetylphenol,structure–activity relationship


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