The overwhelming population growth in recent decades and water crisis along with limited and uneven geographical distribution of fresh water resources is a growing challenge for the economic and human development. Wastewater reclamation and use could be an alternative for intact water sources and a promising solution to water scarcity and unequal distribution. However, wastewater is a double-edged resource both as an accessible water source for food production and human usage and concurrently may carry uncharacterized content with unknown toxicological profile causing acute or long-term health risks. Pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, nanomaterials and their chemical decomposition derivatives found in wastewater are not well known in many cases. Their unknown toxicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity profile associated with lack of monitoring and control measures impose a significant hazard risk on the public health. This paper reviews the evidence on the health risks associated with the wastewater use for irrigated food production and the imposed risk on the end consumers mainly from pharmaceutical industry and related research facilities. Then, we suggest an applied framework for planning and policy-making to mitigate the health risks and optimally employ reclaimed wastewater for human purposes.