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      Construct Validity of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles in Relationship to the PAI, Disciplinary Adjustment, and Program Completion

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      Journal of Personality Assessment

      Informa UK Limited

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          Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children's peer groups.

          We examined social-information-processing mechanisms (e.g., hostile attributional biases and intention-cue detection deficits) in chronic reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in children's peer groups. In Study 1, a teacher-rating instrument was developed to assess these behaviors in elementary school children (N = 259). Reactive and proactive scales were found to be internally consistent, and factor analyses partially supported convergent and discriminant validities. In Study 2, behavioral correlates of these forms of aggression were examined through assessments by peers (N = 339). Both types of aggression related to social rejection, but only proactively aggressive boys were also viewed as leaders and as having a sense of humor. In Study 3, we hypothesized that reactive aggression (but not proactive aggression) would occur as a function of hostile attributional biases and intention-cue detection deficits. Four groups of socially rejected boys (reactive aggressive, proactive aggressive, reactive-proactive aggressive, and nonaggressive) and a group of average boys were presented with a series of hypothetical videorecorded vignettes depicting provocations by peers and were asked to interpret the intentions of the provocateur (N = 117). Only the two reactive-aggressive groups displayed biases and deficits in interpretations. In Study 4, attributional biases and deficits were found to be positively correlated with the rate of reactive aggression (but not proactive aggression) displayed in free play with peers (N = 127). These studies supported the hypothesis that attributional biases and deficits are related to reactive aggression but not to proactive aggression.
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            Multitrait-Multimethod Matrices in Consumer Research

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              Construct validity of psychopathy in a female offender sample: a multitrait-multimethod evaluation.

              The authors examined the construct of psychopathy as applied to 103 female offenders, using the multitrait-multimethod matrix proposed by D. T. Campbell and D. W. Fiske (1959). Instruments used in the study included the following: (a) Antisocial Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (L. C. Morey, 1991); (b) Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (R. D. Hare, 1990); and (c) Antisocial scale of the Personality Disorder Examination (A. W. Loranger, 1988). Criterion-related validity was also evaluated to determine the relationship between psychopathy and staff ratings of aggressive and disruptive behavior within the institution. Results revealed significant convergence and divergence across the instruments supporting the construct of psychopathy in a female offender sample. The measures of psychopathy demonstrated moderate convergence with staff ratings of violence, verbal aggression, manipulativeness, lack of remorse, and noncompliance. It is interesting to note that an exploratory factor analysis of the PCL-R identified a substantially different factor structure for women than has been previously found for male psychopathy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Personality Assessment
                Journal of Personality Assessment
                Informa UK Limited
                0022-3891
                1532-7752
                June 2005
                June 2005
                : 84
                : 3
                : 252-260
                Article
                10.1207/s15327752jpa8403_04
                © 2005

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