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      Malaria Prevalence and Distribution of Plasmodium Species in Southern Region of Ethiopia

      review-article
      Journal of Parasitology Research
      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Malaria is caused by Plasmodium species and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes, which is the most common medical concern all over the world, including in Ethiopia. The current systematic review's goal was to determine the overall malaria prevalence and Plasmodium species distribution in Ethiopia's southern area. To achieve these objectives, 716 articles were manually searched from online databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science. The pooled metalogistic regression was calculated with the STATA 16 software to present the pooled prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Eighteen full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study, out of the 716 studies initially identified. The majority of the articles in the systematic review used a cross-sectional study design, with sample sizes ranging from 160 to 583,668 participants. The study's lowest and highest malaria prevalence was 0.93% and 82.84%, respectively. During the current systematic review, the estimated malaria prevalence was 19.19% (95% CI: 14.67–23.70). There were 263,476 positive individuals in the study, accounting for 148,734, 106,946, and 7,796 cases of P. falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infections, respectively. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax was 8.97% (95% CI: 6.31, 11.63) and 7.94% (95% CI: 6.56, 9.33), respectively. According to the systematic review, the most predominant Plasmodium species responsible for malaria disease in the study area was P. falciparum. The highest malaria rates were found in this systematic review. In the systematic review, P. falciparum was the most dominant Plasmodium species that was responsible for malaria disease in the study area. This systematic review indicates the highest malaria prevalence in the southern regions of Ethiopia. Therefore, existing malaria prevention and control strategies in the southern region of Ethiopia should be revised.

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          Methodological guidance for systematic reviews of observational epidemiological studies reporting prevalence and cumulative incidence data.

          There currently does not exist guidance for authors aiming to undertake systematic reviews of observational epidemiological studies, such as those reporting prevalence and incidence information. These reviews are particularly useful to measure global disease burden and changes in disease over time. The aim of this article is to provide guidance for conducting these types of reviews.
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            The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

            Background This is the second in a series of three articles documenting the geographical distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS) of human malaria. The first paper addressed the DVS of the Americas and the third will consider those of the Asian Pacific Region. Here, the DVS of Africa, Europe and the Middle East are discussed. The continent of Africa experiences the bulk of the global malaria burden due in part to the presence of the An. gambiae complex. Anopheles gambiae is one of four DVS within the An. gambiae complex, the others being An. arabiensis and the coastal An. merus and An. melas. There are a further three, highly anthropophilic DVS in Africa, An. funestus, An. moucheti and An. nili. Conversely, across Europe and the Middle East, malaria transmission is low and frequently absent, despite the presence of six DVS. To help control malaria in Africa and the Middle East, or to identify the risk of its re-emergence in Europe, the contemporary distribution and bionomics of the relevant DVS are needed. Results A contemporary database of occurrence data, compiled from the formal literature and other relevant resources, resulted in the collation of information for seven DVS from 44 countries in Africa containing 4234 geo-referenced, independent sites. In Europe and the Middle East, six DVS were identified from 2784 geo-referenced sites across 49 countries. These occurrence data were combined with expert opinion ranges and a suite of environmental and climatic variables of relevance to anopheline ecology to produce predictive distribution maps using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) method. Conclusions The predicted geographic extent for the following DVS (or species/suspected species complex*) is provided for Africa: Anopheles (Cellia) arabiensis, An. (Cel.) funestus*, An. (Cel.) gambiae, An. (Cel.) melas, An. (Cel.) merus, An. (Cel.) moucheti and An. (Cel.) nili*, and in the European and Middle Eastern Region: An. (Anopheles) atroparvus, An. (Ano.) labranchiae, An. (Ano.) messeae, An. (Ano.) sacharovi, An. (Cel.) sergentii and An. (Cel.) superpictus*. These maps are presented alongside a bionomics summary for each species relevant to its control.
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              Ten year trend analysis of malaria prevalence in Kola Diba, North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

              Background Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. It is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examinations from the Kola Diba Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases reported between 2002–2011 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Additionally, any malaria intervention activities that had been taken to control malaria were collected using a well-prepared checklist from the study area. Results Within the last decade (2002–2011) a total of 59, 208 blood films were requested for malaria diagnosis in Kola Diba health center and 23,473 (39.6%) microscopically confirmed malaria cases were reported in the town with a fluctuating trend. Regarding the identified plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75% and 25% of malaria morbidity, respectively. Malaria was reported in all age groups and both sexes, but the 15–44 year age group and males were more affected. Despite the apparent fluctuation of malaria trends in the area, the highest peak of malaria cases was reported during spring seasons. Conclusion Comparatively, after the introduction of the current malaria control strategies, the morbidity and mortality by malaria is decreasing but malaria is still a major health problem and the deadly species P. falciparium is predominant. Therefore, control activities should be continued in a strengthened manner in the study area considering both P. falciparium and P. vivax.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Parasitol Res
                J Parasitol Res
                jpr
                Journal of Parasitology Research
                Hindawi
                2090-0023
                2090-0031
                2022
                23 June 2022
                : 2022
                : 5665660
                Affiliations
                Department of Biology (Entomology), Wachemo University, Pox, 667 Hossana, Ethiopia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Bernard Marchand

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6338-349X
                Article
                10.1155/2022/5665660
                9246638
                35782658
                811d8d90-f002-442f-a615-0c07c0285046
                Copyright © 2022 Anmut Assemie.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 17 January 2022
                : 8 June 2022
                : 10 June 2022
                Categories
                Review Article

                Parasitology
                Parasitology

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