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      Dasatinib and Doxorubicin Treatment of Sarcoma Initiating Cells: A Possible New Treatment Strategy

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          Abstract

          Background. One of the major challenges affecting sarcoma treatment outcome, particularly that of metastatic disease, is resistance to chemotherapy. Cancer-initiating cells are considered a major contributor to this resistance. Methods. An immortalised nontransformed human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cell line hMSC-TERT4 and a transformed cell line hMSC-TERT20-CE8, known to form sarcoma-like tumours when implanted in immune-deficient mice, were used as models. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation was analysed by RTK arrays and cellular viability after tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI) treatment with or without doxorubicin was assessed by MTS assay. Results. Initial results showed that the hMSC-TERT4 was more doxorubicin-sensitive while hMSC-TERT20-CE8 was less doxorubicin-sensitive evidenced by monitoring cell viability in the presence of doxorubicin at different doses. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was activated in both cell lines. However hMSC-TERT20-CE8 exhibited significantly higher expression of the EGFR ligands. EGFR inhibitors such as erlotinib and afatinib alone or in combination with doxorubicin failed to further decrease cell viability of hMSC-TERT20-CE8. However, inhibition with the TKI dasatinib in combination with doxorubicin decreased cell viability of the hMSC-TERT20-CE8 cell line. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that dasatinib, but not EGFR-directed treatment, can decrease cell viability of stromal cancer stem cells less sensitive to doxorubicin.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Coactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases affects the response of tumor cells to targeted therapies.

          Targeted therapies that inhibit receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and the downstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway have shown promising anticancer activity, but their efficacy in the brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other solid tumors has been modest. We hypothesized that multiple RTKs are coactivated in these tumors and that redundant inputs drive and maintain downstream signaling, thereby limiting the efficacy of therapies targeting single RTKs. Tumor cell lines, xenotransplants, and primary tumors indeed show multiple concomitantly activated RTKs. Combinations of RTK inhibitors and/or RNA interference, but not single agents, decreased signaling, cell survival, and anchorage-independent growth even in glioma cells deficient in PTEN, a frequently inactivated inhibitor of PI3K. Thus, effective GBM therapy may require combined regimens targeting multiple RTKs.
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            Maintenance of differentiation potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells immortalized by human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene despite [corrected] extensive proliferation.

            Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) represent a population of stem cells that are capable of differentiation into multiple lineages. However, these cells exhibit senescence-associated growth arrest and phenotypic changes during long-term in vitro culture. We have recently demonstrated that overexpression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in hMSC reconstitutes telomerase activity and extends life span of the cells [Nat. Biotechnol. 20 (2002) 592]. In the present study, we have performed extensive characterization of three independent cell lines derived from the parental hMSC-TERT cell line based on different plating densities during expansion in culture: 1:2 (hMSC-TERT2), 1:4 (hMSC-TERT4), and 1:20 (hMSC-TERT20). The 3 cell lines exhibited differences in morphology and growth rates but they all maintained the characteristics of self-renewing stem cells and the ability to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages: osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and endothelial-like cells over a 3-year period in culture. Also, surface marker studies using flow cytometry showed a pattern similar to that known from normal hMSC. Thus, telomerization of hMSC by hTERT overexpression maintains the stem cell phenotype of hMSC and it may be a useful tool for obtaining enough number of cells with a stable phenotype for mechanistic studies of cell differentiation and for tissue engineering protocols.
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              Adult human mesenchymal stem cell as a target for neoplastic transformation.

              The neoplastic process may involve a cancer stem cell. This concept has emerged largely from the careful analysis of tumour biopsy systems from haematological, breast and brain tumours. However, the experimental systems necessary to provide the cellular and molecular evidence to support this important concept have been lacking. We have used adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) transduced with the telomerase hTERT gene to investigate the neoplastic potential of adult stem cells. The hTERT-transduced line, hMSC-TERT20 at population doubling level (PDL) 256 showed loss of contact inhibition, anchorage independence and formed tumours in 10/10 mice. hMSC-TERT4 showed loss of contact inhibition at PDL 95, but did not exhibit anchorage independence and did not form tumours in mice. Both lines had a normal karyotype but showed deletion of the Ink4a/ARF locus. At later passage, hMSC-TERT4 also acquired an activating mutation in KRAS. In hMSC-TERT20, expression of the cell cycle-associated gene, DBCCR1 was lost due to promoter hypermethylation. This epigenetic event correlated with acquisition of tumorigenicity. These data suggest that the adult hMSCs can be targets for neoplastic transformation and have implications for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics and for the use of hMSC in tissue engineering and transplantation protocols.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Stem Cells Int
                Stem Cells Int
                SCI
                Stem Cells International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1687-966X
                1687-9678
                2016
                15 December 2015
                : 2016
                Affiliations
                1Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
                2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
                3Laboratory for Molecular Endocrinology (KMEB), Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, 5000 Odense, Denmark
                4Danish Stem Cell Center (DanStem), Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
                Author notes
                *Ninna Aggerholm-Pedersen: ninnpe@ 123456rm.dk

                Academic Editor: Dominik Wolf

                Article
                10.1155/2016/9601493
                4693025
                Copyright © 2016 Ninna Aggerholm-Pedersen et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Molecular medicine

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