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      Positive Personality Model: Which Traits Relate to Complete Mental Health as Conceived by the Dual Factor Model?


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          The aim of this research was to study the association between the Positive Personality Model (PPM) traits and the state of complete mental health as conceived by the Dual Factor Model (DFM). The sample was composed of 1502 Argentinean adults from the general population (age: M = 39.79, SD = 14.23; gender: 50.1% male, 49.9% female). A cluster analysis replicated the four-group classification of the DFM: complete mental health, symptomatic but content, troubled and vulnerable. The complete mental health cluster showed a significantly higher presence of sprightliness, serenity, moderation and integrity than the other groups. As for humanity, the complete mental health and the symptomatic but content groups had the highest scores. Sprightliness and serenity increased the odds of belonging to the complete mental health group while integrity and humanity decreased these odds. Implications for the Argentinean population are discussed.

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          Mental Illness and/or Mental Health? Investigating Axioms of the Complete State Model of Health.

          A continuous assessment and a categorical diagnosis of the presence (i.e., flourishing) and the absence (i.e., languishing) of mental health were proposed and applied to the Midlife in the United States study data, a nationally representative sample of adults between the ages of 25 and 74 years (N = 3,032). Confirmatory factor analyses supported the hypothesis that measures of mental health (i.e., emotional, psychological, and social well-being) and mental illness (i.e., major depressive episode, generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and alcohol dependence) constitute separate correlated unipolar dimensions. The categorical diagnosis yielded an estimate of 18.0% flourishing and, when cross-tabulated with the mental disorders, an estimate of 16.6% with complete mental health. Completely mentally healthy adults reported the fewest health limitations of activities of daily living, the fewest missed days of work, the fewest half-day work cutbacks, and the healthiest psychosocial functioning (low helplessness, clear life goals, high resilience, and high intimacy). (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
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            Linking "big" personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis.

            We performed a quantitative review of associations between the higher order personality traits in the Big Three and Big Five models (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, disinhibition, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness) and specific depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders (SUD) in adults. This approach resulted in 66 meta-analyses. The review included 175 studies published from 1980 to 2007, which yielded 851 effect sizes. For a given analysis, the number of studies ranged from three to 63 (total sample size ranged from 1,076 to 75,229). All diagnostic groups were high on neuroticism (mean Cohen's d = 1.65) and low on conscientiousness (mean d = -1.01). Many disorders also showed low extraversion, with the largest effect sizes for dysthymic disorder (d = -1.47) and social phobia (d = -1.31). Disinhibition was linked to only a few conditions, including SUD (d = 0.72). Finally, agreeableness and openness were largely unrelated to the analyzed diagnoses. Two conditions showed particularly distinct profiles: SUD, which was less related to neuroticism but more elevated on disinhibition and disagreeableness, and specific phobia, which displayed weaker links to all traits. Moderator analyses indicated that epidemiologic samples produced smaller effects than patient samples and that Eysenck's inventories showed weaker associations than NEO scales. In sum, we found that common mental disorders are strongly linked to personality and have similar trait profiles. Neuroticism was the strongest correlate across the board, but several other traits showed substantial effects independent of neuroticism. Greater attention to these constructs can significantly benefit psychopathology research and clinical practice.
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              Flourishing Across Europe: Application of a New Conceptual Framework for Defining Well-Being

              Governments around the world are recognising the importance of measuring subjective well-being as an indicator of progress. But how should well-being be measured? A conceptual framework is offered which equates high well-being with positive mental health. Well-being is seen as lying at the opposite end of a spectrum to the common mental disorders (depression, anxiety). By examining internationally agreed criteria for depression and anxiety (DSM and ICD classifications), and defining the opposite of each symptom, we identify ten features of positive well-being. These combine feeling and functioning, i.e. hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of well-being: competence, emotional stability, engagement, meaning, optimism, positive emotion, positive relationships, resilience, self esteem, and vitality. An operational definition of flourishing is developed, based on psychometric analysis of indicators of these ten features, using data from a representative sample of 43,000 Europeans. Application of this definition to respondents from the 23 countries which participated in the European Social Survey (Round 3) reveals a four-fold difference in flourishing rate, from 41% in Denmark to less than 10% in Slovakia, Russia and Portugal. There are also striking differences in country profiles across the 10 features. These profiles offer fresh insight into cultural differences in well-being, and indicate which features may provide the most promising targets for policies to improve well-being. Comparison with a life satisfaction measure shows that valuable information would be lost if well-being was measured by life satisfaction. Taken together, our findings reinforce the need to measure subjective well-being as a multi-dimensional construct in future surveys.

                Author and article information

                Psychol Thought
                Psychological Thought
                Psychol. Thought
                09 December 2019
                : 12
                : 2
                : 202-213
                [a ]Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [b ] Universidad de Palermo , Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [c ] Universidad de Buenos Aires , Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [4]University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania
                [5]South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria
                Author notes
                [* ]Mario Bravo 1259, C1175ABW, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. gdelaiglesia@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright @ 2019

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 10 May 2019
                : 29 June 2019
                Research Articles

                mental health,Positive Personality Model,positive traits,Dual Factor Model,personality
                mental health, Positive Personality Model, positive traits, Dual Factor Model, personality


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