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      Characteristics of Hospitalized Pediatric Coronavirus Disease 2019 Cases in Chicago, Illinois, March–April 2020

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          Abstract

          Background

          To date, no report on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pediatric patients in a large urban center with data on underlying comorbidities and coinfection for hospitalized cases has been published.

          Methods

          This was a case series of Chicago COVID-19 patients aged 0–17 years reported to the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) from March 5 to April 8, 2020. Enhanced case investigation was performed. χ  2 and Wilcoxon 2-sample tests were used to compare characteristics among hospitalized and nonhospitalized cases.

          Results

          During March 5–April 8, 2020, 6369 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 were reported to CDPH; 64 (1.0%) were among children aged 0–17 years. Ten patients (16%) were hospitalized, and 7 (70%) required intensive care (median length of hospitalization, 4 days [range, 1–14 days]). Reported fever and dyspnea were significantly higher in hospitalized patients than in nonhospitalized patients (9/10 vs 28/54, P = .04 and 7/10 vs 10/54, P = .002, respectively). Hospitalized patients were significantly younger than nonhospitalized patients (median, 3.5 years vs 12 years; P = .03) and all either had an underlying comorbidity or coinfection. Among the 34 unique households with multiple laboratory-confirmed infections, the median number of laboratory-confirmed infections was 2 (range, 2–5), and 31 (91%) households had at least 1 COVID-19–infected adult. For 15 households with available data to assess transmission, 11 (73%) were adult-to-child, 2 (13%) child-to-child, and 2 (13%) child-to-adult.

          Conclusions

          Enhanced case investigation of hospitalized patients revealed that underlying comorbidities and coinfection might have contributed to severe disease. Given frequency of household transmission, healthcare providers should consider alternative dispositional planning for affected families of children living with comorbidities.

          Abstract

          In the first US urban jurisdiction case series summarizing findings of enhanced case investigation of hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients, household transmission was frequent, and all hospitalized patients were found to have an underlying comorbidity or coinfection.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc
          J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc
          jpids
          Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
          Oxford University Press (US )
          2048-7193
          2048-7207
          01 June 2020
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Pediatrics, Rush University Children’s Hospital , Chicago, Illinois, USA
          [2 ] Chicago Department of Public Health , Chicago, Illinois, USA
          Author notes
          Corresponding Author: Marielle J. Fricchione, MD, Chicago Department of Public Health, 2160 W. Ogden Ave, Chicago, IL 60612. E-mail: marielle.fricchione@ 123456cityofchicago.org .
          Article
          piaa070
          10.1093/jpids/piaa070
          7542980
          32479632
          © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

          This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

          This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

          Page count
          Pages: 4
          Product
          Categories
          Original Article
          AcademicSubjects/MED00670
          AcademicSubjects/MED00290
          Custom metadata
          PAP

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