0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      An Overview of the Efficacy and Safety of Ozanimod for the Treatment of Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease of the central nervous system that can cause permanent disability in young adults. A large armamentarium is available for its management and is increasing over time. Ozanimod is an oral drug belonging to the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator family recently approved in different countries for MS with active disease. It selectively modulates S1PR1 and S1PR5 to prevent autoreactive lymphocytes from entering the central nervous system (CNS), where they can determine inflammation and neurodegeneration. Ozanimod was tested in one Phase II and two Phase III pivotal trials and was shown to be effective and well tolerated. Moreover, further investigations, including comparative trials with other S1P modulators and MS disease-modifying drugs, are needed to better define placement in MS treatment. Furthermore, ozanimod is currently under evaluation for inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, in international phase III studies. This article retraces the itinerary leading to the approval of ozanimod for MS treatment and its peculiarities and potentiality inside the S1PR modulator family.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 69

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Ozanimod Induction and Maintenance Treatment for Ulcerative Colitis

          New England Journal of Medicine, 374(18), 1754-1762
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Combination of direct and indirect evidence in mixed treatment comparisons.

            Mixed treatment comparison (MTC) meta-analysis is a generalization of standard pairwise meta-analysis for A vs B trials, to data structures that include, for example, A vs B, B vs C, and A vs C trials. There are two roles for MTC: one is to strengthen inference concerning the relative efficacy of two treatments, by including both 'direct' and 'indirect' comparisons. The other is to facilitate simultaneous inference regarding all treatments, in order for example to select the best treatment. In this paper, we present a range of Bayesian hierarchical models using the Markov chain Monte Carlo software WinBUGS. These are multivariate random effects models that allow for variation in true treatment effects across trials. We consider models where the between-trials variance is homogeneous across treatment comparisons as well as heterogeneous variance models. We also compare models with fixed (unconstrained) baseline study effects with models with random baselines drawn from a common distribution. These models are applied to an illustrative data set and posterior parameter distributions are compared. We discuss model critique and model selection, illustrating the role of Bayesian deviance analysis, and node-based model criticism. The assumptions underlying the MTC models and their parameterization are also discussed. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              FTY720, a novel immunosuppressant, induces sequestration of circulating mature lymphocytes by acceleration of lymphocyte homing in rats. I. FTY720 selectively decreases the number of circulating mature lymphocytes by acceleration of lymphocyte homing.

              FTY720, given i.v. or orally at 0.03 mg/kg or more, significantly prolonged skin allograft survival in a dose-dependent manner and showed more potent immunosuppressive activity than cyclosporin A (CsA) or tacrolimus (FK506) in MHC-incompatible rat strains of WKAH donors and F344 recipients. However, unlike CsA or FK506, FTY720 up to 1000 nM did not affect IL-2 production in allogeneic MLC. Within 3 to 24 h after a single oral administration of FTY720 at 0.1 to 1 mg/kg, the number of lymphocytes in the rats was markedly decreased in the peripheral blood and thoracic duct lymph and partially in spleen. By contrast, the number of lymphocytes in peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and Peyer's patches (PP) was significantly increased at the same time. Intravenous transfusion of calcein-labeled rat lymphocytes into rats revealed that FTY720 significantly accelerated lymphocyte homing to PLN, MLN, and PP, dose dependently. Since FTY720-induced lymphocyte homing was completely blocked by simultaneous treatment of the calcein-labeled lymphocytes with mAbs against CD62L, CD49d, and CD11a before the transfusion, the acceleration of lymphocyte homing by FTY720 appears to be mediated by lymphocyte-homing receptors. These findings indicate that FTY720 sequesters circulating mature lymphocytes into PLN, MLN, and PP by acceleration of lymphocyte homing and thereby decreases the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, thoracic duct lymph, and spleen. Based on these observations, sequestration of circulating mature-lymphocytes is presumed to be a main mechanism of the immunosuppressive activity of FTY720.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                11 May 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 1993-2004
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medical Science and Public Health, University of Cagliari , Cagliari, Italy
                [2 ]Multiple Sclerosis Center, Binaghi Hospital, ATS Sardegna, ASSL Cagliari , Cagliari, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Eleonora Cocco Multiple Sclerosis Center, Binaghi Hospital, ATS Sardegna, ASSL , Via is Guadazzonis 2, Cagliari, 09126, ItalyTel +39 070 609 2806 Email ecocco@unica.it
                Article
                240861
                10.2147/DDDT.S240861
                8123972
                © 2021 Fronza et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, References: 78, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article