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      Geology and paleontology of the Upper Cretaceous Kem Kem Group of eastern Morocco

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          Abstract

          The geological and paleoenvironmental setting and the vertebrate taxonomy of the fossiliferous, Cenomanian-age deltaic sediments in eastern Morocco, generally referred to as the “Kem Kem beds”, are reviewed. These strata are recognized here as the Kem Kem Group, which is composed of the lower Gara Sbaa and upper Douira formations. Both formations have yielded a similar fossil vertebrate assemblage of predominantly isolated elements pertaining to cartilaginous and bony fishes, turtles, crocodyliforms, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs, as well as invertebrate, plant, and trace fossils. These fossils, now in collections around the world, are reviewed and tabulated. The Kem Kem vertebrate fauna is biased toward large-bodied carnivores including at least four large-bodied non-avian theropods (an abelisaurid, Spinosaurus , Carcharodontosaurus , and Deltadromeus ), several large-bodied pterosaurs, and several large crocodyliforms. No comparable modern terrestrial ecosystem exists with similar bias toward large-bodied carnivores. The Kem Kem vertebrate assemblage, currently the best documented association just prior to the onset of the Cenomanian-Turonian marine transgression, captures the taxonomic diversity of a widespread northern African fauna better than any other contemporary assemblage from elsewhere in Africa.

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          The Guild Concept and the Structure of Ecological Communities

           D Simberloff,  T Dayan (1991)
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            Predatory Dinosaurs from the Sahara and Late Cretaceous Faunal Differentiation

            Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) fossils discovered in the Kem Kem region of Morocco include large predatory dinosaurs that inhabited Africa as it drifted into geographic isolation. One, represented by a skull approximately 1.6 meters in length, is an advanced allosauroid referable to the African genus Carcharodontosaurus. Another, represented by a partial skeleton with slender proportions, is a new basal coelurosaur closely resembling the Egyptian genus Bahariasaurus. Comparisons with Cretaceous theropods from other continents reveal a previously unrecognized global radiation of carcharodontosaurid predators. Substantial geographic differentiation of dinosaurian faunas in response to continental drift appears to have arisen abruptly at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous.
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              A new carnosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                21 April 2020
                : 928
                : 1-216
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Biology, University of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, Michigan 48221, USA
                [2 ] Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy and Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
                [3 ] Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA
                [4 ] School of the Environment, Geography and Geological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3QL, UK
                [5 ] Centre de Recherche sur la Paléobiodiversité et les Paléoenvironnements, UMR7207 (CNRS-MNHN-UPMC), Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 75005 Paris, France
                [6 ] School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RF, UK
                [7 ] Laboratoire Géosciences, Département de Géologie, Faculté des Sciences Aïn Chock, Université Hassan II, Casablanca, Morocco
                [8 ] Redpath Museum, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C4, Canada
                [9 ] Laboratoire de Biodiversité et Santé, Faculté des Sciences Aïn Chock, Université Hassan II, Casablanca, Morocco
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Nizar Ibrahim ( ibrahini@ 123456udmercy.edu ), Paul C. Sereno ( dinosaur@ 123456uchicago.edu )

                Academic editor: Massimo Delfino

                Article
                47517
                10.3897/zookeys.928.47517
                7188693
                Nizar Ibrahim, Paul C. Sereno, David M. Varrricchio, David M. Martill, Didier B. Dutheil, David M. Unwin, Lahssen Baidder, Hans C. E. Larsson, Samir Zouhri, Abdelhadi Kaoukaya

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Monograph
                Amphibia
                Aves
                Mammalia
                Pisces
                Reptilia
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Palaeontology
                Palaeozoology
                Systematics
                Taxonomy
                Cretaceous
                Mesozoic
                Africa
                North Africa

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