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      Evaluation of Enzymes Involved in Proteoglycan Degradation in the Wall of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

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          Abstract

          The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall represents an extreme example of arterial remodeling with disturbed elastin, collagen and proteoglycan metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate enzymes involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycan chains and core proteins of proteoglycans in the AAA wall. The study material consisted of wall samples from 10 AAA. Fragments of 5 normal abdominal aortas from organ donors were used as a control. The activity of endoglycosidases, exoglycosidases and sulfatases was measured using colorimetric methods. To assess matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), Western blot and zymography were performed. The activity of endoglycosidase degrading chondroitin-4-sulfate was lower in the AAA wall. Endoglycosidase degrading heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate, arylosulfatase B, as well as all the exoglycosidases assessed demonstrated higher activities in the AAA wall. Furthermore, increased expression of MMP1, MMP2 and MMP9 was also shown in the AAA wall. Zymography revealed decreased activity of pro-MMP2 and presence of pro-MMP9 in the AAA wall compared to the wall of normal aorta. Extensive changes in the activity of glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes and MMPs may influence the organization of the extracellular matrix network and lead to previously demonstrated changes in the proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan content in the AAA wall.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Functional structure and composition of the extracellular matrix.

          In this brief introductory paper the general structure and the molecular composition of the extracellular matrix are outlined. Ultrastructural morphology of the extracellular matrix is introduced and subsequently the molecular structure of each of the main protein families, which together make up the extracellular matrix, is reviewed. Collagens, laminins, tenascins, and proteoglycans are addressed. An important common feature is the domain structure of these in general very large proteins. Several families have domains in common, which favours extensive interactions. Integrins play an important role in these interactions and also in the communication between cells and the matrix. The extracellular matrix appears to be a very dynamic structure, which has a prominent role in normal development as well as in a variety of disease processes. Matrix metalloproteinases are essential actors in this complex interplay between cells and the extracellular matrix. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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            Production and localization of 92-kilodalton gelatinase in abdominal aortic aneurysms. An elastolytic metalloproteinase expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages.

            Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by disruption and degradation of the elastic media, yet the elastolytic proteinases involved and their cellular sources are undefined. We examined if 92-kD gelatinase, an elastolytic matrix metalloproteinase, participates in the pathobiology of AAA. Gelatin zymography of conditioned medium from normal, atheroocclusive disease (AOD), or AAA tissues in organ culture showed that all tissues produced 72-kD gelatinase. AOD and AAA cultures also secreted 92-kD gelatinase, but significantly more enzyme was released from AAA tissues. ELISA confirmed that AAA tissues released approximately 2-fold more 92-kD gelatinase than AOD tissue and approximately 10-fold more than normal aorta. Phorbol ester induced a 5.3-fold increase in 92-kD gelatinase secretion by normal aorta and AOD and an 11.5-fold increase by AAA. By immunohistochemistry, 92-kD gelatinase was not detected in normal aorta and was only occasionally seen within the neointimal lesions of AOD tissue. In all AAA specimens, however, 92-kD gelatinase was readily localized to numerous macrophages in the media and at the adventitial-medial junction. The expression of 92-kD gelatinase mRNA by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These results demonstrate that diseased aortic tissues secrete greater amounts of gelatinolytic activity than normal aorta primarily due to increased production of 92-kD gelatinase. In addition, the localization of 92-kD gelatinase to macrophages in the damaged wall of aneurysmal aortas suggests that chronic release of this elastolytic metalloproteinase contributes to extracellular matrix degradation in AAA.
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              Proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix and growth control.

              Regulated cell growth results from the biological balance between soluble growth-regulating factors, their receptors and the elicited signal cascade on the one hand side and from extracellular macromolecular components and their interplay with membrane receptors on the other side. Proteoglycans have recently been recognized not only to play a part in providing shape and biomechanical strength of organs and tissues, but also to exhibit direct and indirect cell signalling properties. In this review, we discuss the direct growth-regulating role of proteoglycans with special emphasis on the lectican family and on the family of small proteoglycans with leucine-rich repeats (SLRPs). Indirect actions of proteoglycans by modulation of growth factor activities and growth factor distribution are exemplified by discussing the TGF-beta-binding properties of SLRPs and the interactions of core proteins of matrix proteoglycans with other growth factors. It is emphasized that the modulatory role of proteoglycans on cell proliferation cannot be separated from their participation in tissue organization in general, thereby explaining the diverse and sometimes contradictory reports on the effects of proteoglycans on cell proliferation and differentiation. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2006
                December 2005
                21 December 2005
                : 43
                : 1
                : 95-100
                Affiliations
                Departments of aVascular Surgery and Transplantology, and bMedical Biochemistry, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland
                Article
                89790 J Vasc Res 2006;43:95–100
                10.1159/000089790
                16293969
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 31, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Paper

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