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      Paclitaxel-Loaded Magnetic Nanoparticles Based on Biotinylated N-Palmitoyl Chitosan: Synthesis, Characterization and Preliminary In Vitro Studies

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          Abstract

          A considerable interest in cancer research is represented by the development of magnetic nanoparticles based on biofunctionalized polymers for controlled-release systems of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs targeted only to the tumor sites, without affecting normal cells. The objective of the paper is to present the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of the nanocomposites that include a magnetic core able to direct the systems to the target, a polymeric surface shell that provides stabilization and multi-functionality, a chemotherapeutic agent, Paclitaxel (PTX), and a biotin tumor recognition layer. To our best knowledge, there are no studies concerning development of magnetic nanoparticles obtained by partial oxidation, based on biotinylated N-palmitoyl chitosan loaded with PTX. The structure, external morphology, size distribution, colloidal and magnetic properties analyses confirmed the formation of well-defined crystalline magnetite conjugates, with broad distribution, relatively high saturation magnetization and irregular shape. Even if the ability of the nanoparticles to release the drug in 72 h was demonstrated, further complex in vitro and in vivo studies will be performed in order to validate the magnetic nanoparticles as PTX delivery system.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Biodegradation, biodistribution and toxicity of chitosan.

           T. Kean,  M. Thanou (2010)
          Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide that has attracted significant scientific interest during the last two decades. It is a potentially biologically compatible material that is chemically versatile (-NH2 groups and various M(w)). These two basic properties have been used by drug delivery and tissue engineering scientists to create a plethora of formulations and scaffolds that show promise in healthcare. Despite the high number of published studies, chitosan is not approved by the FDA for any product in drug delivery, and as a consequence very few biotech companies are using this material. This review will aim to provide information on these biological properties that affect chitosan's safe use in drug delivery. The term "Chitosan" represents a large group of structurally different chemical entities that may show different biodistribution, biodegradation and toxicological profiles. Here we aim to review research in this area and critically discuss chitosan's potential to be used as a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) material. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Iron oxide MR contrast agents for molecular and cellular imaging.

            Molecular and cellular MR imaging is a rapidly growing field that aims to visualize targeted macromolecules or cells in living organisms. In order to provide a different signal intensity of the target, gadolinium-based MR contrast agents can be employed although they suffer from an inherent high threshold of detectability. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles can be detected at micromolar concentrations of iron, and offer sufficient sensitivity for T2(*)-weighted imaging. Over the past two decades, biocompatible particles have been linked to specific ligands for molecular imaging. However, due to their relatively large size and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), widespread biomedical molecular applications have yet to be implemented and few studies have been reproduced between different laboratories. SPIO-based cellular imaging, on the other hand, has now become an established technique to label and detect the cells of interest. Imaging of macrophage activity was the initial and still is the most significant application, in particular for tumor staging of the liver and lymph nodes, with several products either approved or in clinical trials. The ability to now also label non-phagocytic cells in culture using derivatized particles, followed by transplantation or transfusion in living organisms, has led to an active research interest to monitor the cellular biodistribution in vivo including cell migration and trafficking. While most of these studies to date have been mere of the 'proof-of-principle' type, further exploitation of this technique will be aimed at obtaining a deeper insight into the dynamics of in vivo cell biology, including lymphocyte trafficking, and at monitoring therapies that are based on the use of stem cells and progenitors. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              Magnetic nanoparticles and targeted drug delivering.

              Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are being of great interest due to their unique purposes. Especially in medicine, application of MNPs is much promising. MNPs have been actively investigated as the next generation of targeted drug delivery for more than thirty years. The importance of targeted drug delivery and targeted drug therapy is to transport a drug directly to the centre of the disease under various conditions and thereby treat it deliberately, with no effects on the body. Usage of MNPs depends largely on the preparation processes to select optimal conditions and election agents to modify their surface. This review summarizes the most commonly used functionalization methods of the MNPs preparation methods and their use in targeted drug delivery and targeted therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                07 June 2021
                June 2021
                : 26
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi, 700115 Iasi, Romania; vlad.ursachi@ 123456umfiasi.ro (V.C.U.); liliana.verestiuc@ 123456bioinginerie.ro (L.V.)
                [2 ]Advanced Centre for Research-Development in Experimental Medicine, Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi, 700115 Iasi, Romania; gianina.dodi@ 123456umfiasi.ro (G.D.); cosmin-teodor.mihai@ 123456umfiasi.ro (C.T.M.)
                [3 ]Natural Polymers, Bioactive and Biocompatible Materials Laboratory, Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 700487 Iasi, Romania; rusu.alina@ 123456icmpp.ro
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: balan.vera@ 123456umfiasi.ro ; Tel.: +40-232-213573
                Article
                molecules-26-03467
                10.3390/molecules26113467
                8201305
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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