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      Small RNA Sequencing of Aqueous Humor and Plasma in Patients With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Identify differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in aqueous humor (AH) and blood of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients by using small RNA sequencing. These may provide insight into POAG pathophysiology or serve as diagnostic biomarker.

          Methods

          AH and plasma of nine POAG patients and 10 cataract control patients were small RNA sequenced on Illumina NovaSeq 6000. Identification of gene transcripts targeted by differentially expressed miRNAs was done with miRWalk and MirPath. These targets were used for pathway analysis and Gene Ontology enrichment. Diagnostic potential was evaluated by receiver operating characteristics analysis.

          Results

          We identified 715 miRNAs in plasma and 62 miRNAs in AH. Plasma miRNA profile did not differ between POAG and control. In contrast, in AH, seven miRNAs were differentially expressed. Hsa-miR-30a-3p, hsa-miR-143-3p, hsa-miR-211-5p, and hsa-miR-221-3p were upregulated, whereas hsa-miR-92a-3p, hsa-miR-451a, and hsa-miR-486-5p were downregulated in POAG. Compared to previous studies, hsa-mir-143-3p, hsa-miR-211-5p, and hsa-miR-221-3p were reported previously, strengthening their involvement in POAG whereas hsa-miR-30a-3p, hsa-miR-92a-3p, and hsa-miR-486-5p are implicated in POAG for the first time. Identified gene transcripts were involved in several pathways, some implicated in glaucoma before (e.g., TGF-β and neurotrophin signaling), whereas others are new (e.g., prolactin and apelin signaling). In respect to diagnostics, AH concentration of hsa-mir-143-3p had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.889. Combined with hsa-miR-221-3p, AUC improved to 0.96.

          Conclusions

          Small RNA sequencing identified seven differentially expressed miRNAs in AH of POAG patients. The differentially expressed miRNAs may be useful as POAG biomarkers or could become targets for new therapeutic strategies.

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          Most cited references 69

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          MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function.

           David Bartel (2004)
          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximately 22 nt RNAs that can play important regulatory roles in animals and plants by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Although they escaped notice until relatively recently, miRNAs comprise one of the more abundant classes of gene regulatory molecules in multicellular organisms and likely influence the output of many protein-coding genes.
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            Enrichr: interactive and collaborative HTML5 gene list enrichment analysis tool

            Background System-wide profiling of genes and proteins in mammalian cells produce lists of differentially expressed genes/proteins that need to be further analyzed for their collective functions in order to extract new knowledge. Once unbiased lists of genes or proteins are generated from such experiments, these lists are used as input for computing enrichment with existing lists created from prior knowledge organized into gene-set libraries. While many enrichment analysis tools and gene-set libraries databases have been developed, there is still room for improvement. Results Here, we present Enrichr, an integrative web-based and mobile software application that includes new gene-set libraries, an alternative approach to rank enriched terms, and various interactive visualization approaches to display enrichment results using the JavaScript library, Data Driven Documents (D3). The software can also be embedded into any tool that performs gene list analysis. We applied Enrichr to analyze nine cancer cell lines by comparing their enrichment signatures to the enrichment signatures of matched normal tissues. We observed a common pattern of up regulation of the polycomb group PRC2 and enrichment for the histone mark H3K27me3 in many cancer cell lines, as well as alterations in Toll-like receptor and interlukin signaling in K562 cells when compared with normal myeloid CD33+ cells. Such analyses provide global visualization of critical differences between normal tissues and cancer cell lines but can be applied to many other scenarios. Conclusions Enrichr is an easy to use intuitive enrichment analysis web-based tool providing various types of visualization summaries of collective functions of gene lists. Enrichr is open source and freely available online at: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/Enrichr.
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              Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              Glaucoma is the leading cause of global irreversible blindness. Present estimates of global glaucoma prevalence are not up-to-date and focused mainly on European ancestry populations. We systematically examined the global prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and projected the number of affected people in 2020 and 2040. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data from 50 population-based studies (3770 POAG cases among 140,496 examined individuals and 786 PACG cases among 112 398 examined individuals). We searched PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science for population-based studies of glaucoma prevalence published up to March 25, 2013. Hierarchical Bayesian approach was used to estimate the pooled glaucoma prevalence of the population aged 40-80 years along with 95% credible intervals (CrIs). Projections of glaucoma were estimated based on the United Nations World Population Prospects. Bayesian meta-regression models were performed to assess the association between the prevalence of POAG and the relevant factors. Prevalence and projection numbers of glaucoma cases. The global prevalence of glaucoma for population aged 40-80 years is 3.54% (95% CrI, 2.09-5.82). The prevalence of POAG is highest in Africa (4.20%; 95% CrI, 2.08-7.35), and the prevalence of PACG is highest in Asia (1.09%; 95% CrI, 0.43-2.32). In 2013, the number of people (aged 40-80 years) with glaucoma worldwide was estimated to be 64.3 million, increasing to 76.0 million in 2020 and 111.8 million in 2040. In the Bayesian meta-regression model, men were more likely to have POAG than women (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% CrI, 1.23-1.52), and after adjusting for age, gender, habitation type, response rate, and year of study, people of African ancestry were more likely to have POAG than people of European ancestry (OR, 2.80; 95% CrI, 1.83-4.06), and people living in urban areas were more likely to have POAG than those in rural areas (OR, 1.58; 95% CrI, 1.19-2.04). The number of people with glaucoma worldwide will increase to 111.8 million in 2040, disproportionally affecting people residing in Asia and Africa. These estimates are important in guiding the designs of glaucoma screening, treatment, and related public health strategies. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
                Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
                iovs
                IOVS
                Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
                The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
                0146-0404
                1552-5783
                22 June 2021
                June 2021
                : 62
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]University Eye Clinic Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands
                [2 ]School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Theo G. M. F. Gorgels, University Eye Clinic Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands; theo.gorgels@ 123456mumc.nl .

                WHGH and JK contributed equally to this work as co-first authors.

                Article
                IOVS-21-32234
                10.1167/iovs.62.7.24
                8237107
                34156425
                Copyright 2021 The Authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Pages: 12
                Product
                Categories
                Glaucoma
                Glaucoma

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