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      What difference does a century make? Shifts in the ecosystem structure of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, as evidenced from a sentinel species, the Weddell seal

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      Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

      The Royal Society

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          Using Stable Isotopes to Estimate Trophic Position: Models, Methods, and Assumptions

           David Post (2002)
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            TROPHIC RELATIONSHIPS AND THE NITROGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF AMINO ACIDS IN PLANKTON

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              Historical baselines for large marine animals.

              Current trends in marine ecosystems need to be interpreted against a solid understanding of the magnitude and drivers of past changes. Over the last decade, marine scientists from different disciplines have engaged in the emerging field of marine historical ecology to reconstruct past changes in the sea. Here we review the diversity of approaches used and resulting patterns of historical changes in large marine mammals, birds, reptiles and fish. Across 256 reviewed records, exploited populations declined 89% from historical abundance levels (range: 11-100%). In many cases, long-term fluctuations are related to climate variation, rapid declines to overexploitation and recent recoveries to conservation measures. These emerging historical patterns offer new insights into past ecosystems, and provide important context for contemporary ocean management.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                Proc. R. Soc. B
                The Royal Society
                0962-8452
                1471-2954
                August 30 2017
                August 30 2017
                August 30 2017
                August 30 2017
                : 284
                : 1861
                : 20170927
                Article
                10.1098/rspb.2017.0927
                © 2017

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