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      Mechanical Complications after Myocardial Infarction Reliably Predicted Using C-Reactive Protein Levels and Lymphocytopenia

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          Abstract

          We assessed the accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lymphocyte counts to predict a mechanical complication (MC) after myocardial infarction (MI). Within 10 years, we identified 36 patients with 39 echocardiographically confirmed MC within 30 days of MI: ventricular septal defect (17 cases), papillary muscle rupture (10 cases), and left ventricular free wall rupture (12 cases). They were compared to 41 controls with an uncomplicated hospital course after MI. Peak CRP levels and minimum relative lymphocyte counts obtained within 96 h of the acute MI (AMI) and before diagnosis of the complication were compared with clinical parameters. Prior to the MC, peak CRP levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) and relative lymphocyte counts lower (p < 0.001) than in controls while creatine kinase levels did not differ (p = nonsignificant). Using multivariate logistic regression, the following score was identified to have excellent prognostic significance for MC: CRP (mg/l) – 10 × Lyc (%). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.90 ± 0.05 (p < 0.001). Combined use of CRP levels and relative lymphocyte counts may be helpful in accurately predicting an MC after AMI and should therefore be routinely assessed.

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          Primary angioplasty reduces risk of myocardial rupture compared to thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction.

          Although the mechanical complications of acute ventricular septal defect and acute mitral regurgitation are uncommon after acute myocardial infarction, these complications are associated with an extremely high morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that the administration of thrombolytic drugs may result in hemorrhagic infarction as well as the potential for incomplete revascularization and thus may lead to an increased incidence of mechanical complications compared to primary angioplasty. Accordingly, we reviewed the data of the most contemporary thrombolytic and primary angioplasty trials and compared the incidence of mechanical complications among 36,303 patients treated with thrombolytics reported in the GUSTO trial to the incidence of mechanical complications among 1,295 patients treated with primary angioplasty obtained from the PAMI-1 and PAMI-2 trials. We found that angioplasty resulted in an overall 86% relative risk reduction in mechanical complications (2.20% vs. 0.31%, P < 0.001). In comparison to thrombolytic therapy, angioplasty resulted in an 82% decrease in acute mitral regurgitation (1.73% vs. 0.31%, P < 0.001) and a 100% decrease in acute ventricular septal defect (0.47% vs. 0.00%, P < 0.03). In conclusion, in patients with acute myocardial infarction, reperfusion with primary angioplasty is associated with less myocardial rupture and mechanical complications than thrombolytics. This finding may, in part, explain the improved prognosis observed in myocardial infarction patients treated with primary angioplasty.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            CRD
            Cardiology
            10.1159/issn.0008-6312
            Cardiology
            S. Karger AG
            0008-6312
            1421-9751
            2003
            February 2003
            24 February 2003
            : 99
            : 1
            : 25-31
            Affiliations
            aDivision of Cardiology and bMedical Clinic B, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, and cDepartment of Biostatistics, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
            Article
            68448 Cardiology 2003;99:25–31
            10.1159/000068448
            12589119
            © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 28, Pages: 7
            Categories
            General Cardiology

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